Biopesticides - new study published

sis at cplsci.demon.co.uk sis at cplsci.demon.co.uk
Thu Oct 26 06:01:28 EST 1995


sis at cplsci.demon.co.uk

Biopesticides - the 4th edition of the multi-client special study by CPL 
Scientific Information
Services - has just been published. The study focuses on products used as 
insecticides,
herbicides or fungicides, in which the active principle is based on or 
derived from a
microorganism, or a nematode. The Table of Contents is below.

The study is 549 pages, 275,000 words, with an index of 2,680 terms. All the 
information in
the study has been revised and updated since the 3rd edition in April, 1992. 
The study costs
UKP2,500 or USD4,150, but a 40% discount is available to academic, 
government or
international organisations.

Contact Dr Steve Lisansky on sis at cplsci.demon.co.uk

Table of Contents

Executive Summary (1)

1   The Market for Biopesticides (5)
1.1 Current markets (5)
1.2 Market projections (6)
1.3 Market share (10)
1.4 Market potential (11)
 Definition (12)
 Formulation (14)
 How biopesticides work (15)
 Advantages of biopesticides (16)
 Longer-term potential for biopesticides (18)
1.5 Agriculture (20)
 Food crops  (20)
    Wheat 21,  Maize 22,  Sugar 23,  Rice 23,  Potatoes 24, Soybeans 25,  
Coffee, tea & cocoa 25, 
         Post harvest (26) Cereals 26,  Potatoes 28,  Fruit & vegetables 28
 Cotton (30)
 Plantation crops (32)
 Grassland and pasture (33)
1.6 Horticulture (33)
1.7 Protected crops (38)
1.8 Home & Garden (40)
 Garden  (40)
 Household pests (41)
1.9 Amenity areas, Parks & Reservoirs (42)
1.10     Forestry (43)
1.11     Public health  (45)
 Mosquito  (46)
 Blackfly (46)
 Water supplies (47)
 Others (47)
 Locusts (48)
2   Factors Impacting the Biopesticides Market (49)
2.1 Users (49)
2.2 Governments (51)
2.3 Consumers  (54)
 Consumer survey results (59)
 Organic food (62)
 Chemicals in the environment  (64)
2.4 Need for pesticides (67)
 Costs & Value  (67)
 Development costs - chemicals vs biologicals  (69)
 New pests & resistance (70)
 New integrated agricultural systems IPM/ICP/IFP/LISA (71)
3   Markets & Products (74)
3.1 Markets by region (74)
 North America  (74)
 Introduction 74,  Forestry 74,  Agricultural & Other 75)
 Western Europe (79)
 Germany 80,   Italy 80,  The Netherlands  80,  Spain 81,  Scandinavia 81,  
UK 81,  Switzerland & Austria
82
 Eastern Europe (82)
 Australia (84)
 Japan (85)
 China  (86)
 South East Asia, Taiwan & Pakistan (87)
 Indonesia 88,  Philippines 92,  Taiwan 92,  Thailand 93,   Vietnam 94
 South & Central America (94)
 Others (95)
 South Africa  95,  Middle East  96
3.2 Products by type (97)
 Bacteria  (97)
 Background  97,  Products  98,  Other  102,  Disease control 102
 Fungal insecticides (104)
 Background  104,  Products 104,  Limitations  106,  The future 107)
 Fungal herbicides (108)
 Background  108,  Limitations  109,  The future 110)
 Fungal fungicides (110)
Fungi against nematodes (112)
 Mycorrhizal fungi  (113)
 Background  113,  The future  114
 Viruses  (115)
 Background  115,  Products 116,  The future 117
 Nematodes  (118)
 Background 118,  Products 119,  Limitations  121,  The future 121
 Protozoa  (122)
4   Going into Biopesticides (123)
4.2 Agrochemical & pharmaceutical companies  (125)
4.3 Fermentation companies (129)
4.4 New companies (130)
4.5 Selecting distributors (133)
4.6 User education  (134)
4.7 Advertising (134)
4.8 Marketing and production costs (137)
 Marketing costs (139)
 Production costs (141)
4.9 Costs and risks? (144)
5   How Biopesticides Work (147)
5.1 Summary (147)
5.2 Introduction (149)
5.3 Bacteria (149)
 Bacillus thuringiensis (149)
 Description 149,  Crystal structure 152,  Toxins  - beta-exotoxin 157, 
delta-endotoxin 157,  Cytotoxins 158, 
 Biochemical action 158, New developments 161,  Resistance  164,  Avoiding 
resistance  166
 Bacillus sphaericus (167)
 Bacillus popilliae & Bacillus lentimorbus  (169)
 Bacillus subtilis (169)
 Agrobacterium tumefaciens (171)
 Pseudomonas (172)
 Mechanism 173,  Uses 176
 Streptomyces (183)
 Other bacteria (184)
 B cereus 184,  B pumilus & B mycoides  184, Bacillus sp. 185,  Clostridium 
185,  EcoScience's Bacteria
 185, Enterobacter 185,   Erwinia 186,     Lactobacillus & Nocardiopsis 187, 
 Pasteuria & & Pimelobacter 
 187 Rhizobacteria 188,  Serratia 188,  Telluria & Xanthomonas 189
5.4 Fungi (189)
 Infection by entomopathogenic fungi (189)
 Beauveria (191) Metarhizium (195) Paecilomyces (198) Verticillium (199) 
Aschersonia,
 Hirsutella, &  Nomuraea (201) Entomophthorales  (202) Coelomomyces, 
Culicinomyces,
 Lagenidium & Tolypocladium (203)
 Other fungi (206)
 Fungal toxins (206)
 Fungal control of weeds - mycoherbicides (207)
 Strategy 208, Products 208
 Future potential of mycoherbicides (210)
 Velvetleaf  210, Sicklepod 211, Dodder 212, Jimsonweed  212,  Water 
hyacinth 213,  Others 214, 
 Formulation 216,  Combinations 217,  Herbicidal compounds 217
 Fungi against plant disease (218)
 Gliocladium  218,  Peniophora 220,  Trichoderma 220,  Verticillium 224, 
Other fungi 225 - Acremonium,
 Actinomycetes, Actinoplanes, Ampelomyces,  Aphanocladium, Aspergillus, 
Chaetomium, Cladosporium,
 Coniothyrium , Fusarium, Geotrichum, Idriella, Laetisaria, Lecythophora, 
Lentinus, Pyrenophora,
 Metarhizium, Myrothecium , Ophiostoma, Paecilomyces, Penicillium, 
Phaeotheca, Pseudomonas, Pythium,
 Rhizoctonia, Scytalidium, Sporothrix, Stachybotrys, Sterile red fungus, 
Talaromyces, Trichothecium, White
 sterile fungus , Yeasts - 230 - Candida, Cryptococcus, Pichia, Rhodotorula, 
Saccharomyces Tilletiopsis,
 Unnamed yeasts, Yeast cell wall, Hypovirulence 232,  Induced resistance 
234)
 Mycorrhizal fungi (235)
 Description 235,  Production 238
5.5 Viruses (239)
 Description (239)
 Infection  (241)
 Transmission (242)
 Production (242)
 Future improvements (244)
 Novel approaches 245,  Additives 245,  Enhancing factor 246,  Combinations 
246 Formulation and
 environmental persistence  247, Storage 247
 Prospective products (248)
Chilo infuscatellus 248,  Cydia pomonella  248,  Euproctis chrysorrhoea 248, 
Heliothis  248,  Lymantria dispar
248,  Melanoplus 249,  Spodoptera  249 
 Genetic engineering  (249)
5.6 Nematodes (251)
 Products (251)
 Recent targets (253)
 Improvement (256)
 Symbiotic bacteria (257)
 Formulation (259)
 Application (260)
 Nematodes as herbicides  (260)
5.7 Protozoa (261)
6   Research, Development & Production of Biopesticides  (263)
6.1 Finding a biopesticide (263)
 Bioassays & alternative methods (264)
6.2 Production (264)
 The critical nature of production (264)
 Semi-solid fermentation (266)
 Methods 266,  Media 267, Media Sterilization 267,  Cooling 268, Maintaining 
Sterility 268,  Oxygen &
 Heat Transfer 268,  Particle Size 268
 Semi-solid fermentations (269)
 Alternaria cassiae & Fusarium lateritium  269,  Beauveria bassiana 269, 
Cercospora rodmanii  269,
 Hirsutella thompsonii  269, Metarhizium anisopliae 269, Trichoderma  270
 Submerged fermentation (270)
 Media 270,  Types of fermenters 271,  Types of fermentations 271
 The fermentation sequence (271)
 Cultures 271,  Inoculum 272,  Final vessel 272, Examples 272
 Submerged fermentations  (273)
 Beauveria bassiana  273,  Colletotrichum 273,   Conidiobolus obscurus  273, 
Lagenidium giganteum 273, 
 Metarhizium anisopliae 274 
 In vivo production (274)
6.3 Product recovery (276)
 From semi-solid fermentation (276)
 From liquid fermentation  (276)
 Continuous centrifugation 276,  Spray drying 277,  Freeze dying  277,    
Evaporation 277, Filtration  277
6.4 Scale-up (278)
6.5 Formulation (279)
  Background (279)
 Standard formulations (280)
 Powders 280,  Flowable Concentrates 280,  High potency concentrates 281, 
Granules 281
 Improvements (281)
 UV (284)
 Conclusions (285)
6.6 Quality control & Laboratory testing  (286)
 Efficacy (286)
 Bioassays & Other tests (287)
 Microbiological purity (289)
 Mammalian safety (289)
 Physical characteristics (289)
6.7 Field testing (290)
6.8 R & D costs (291)
6.9 Impact of new technology (292)
6.9.1    Introduction (292)
6.9.2    Pest management (293)
6.9.3    Bacillus thuringiensis  (294)
6.9.4    Resistant plants (297)
6.9.5    Other bacteria (300)
6.9.6    Fungi  (302)
6.9.7    Viruses  (304)
6.9.8    Nematodes  (307)
7   Product Registration & Approval (309)
7.1 Introduction (309)
 Protection of humans (312)
 Protection of the environment (314)
 GMOs (316)
 Which products are biopesticides? (318)
 Time & expense (318)
 History (319)
7.2 United States (320)
 Brief history of pesticide legislation in the US (321)
 Definitions (322)
 Safety (323)
 Need to sabilize before testing 323,  Timing 323
 Environmental Protection Agency guidelines (324)
 General recommendations on the required tests (325)
 Toxicology tests (326)
 Acute oral 326, Acute dermal 327,  Acute inhalation 327,  Primary dermal, 
irritation 327,  Primary eye
 irritation 327,  Hypersensitivity 327,  Intravenous (IV), intracerebral 
(IC) and intraperitoneal (IP)
 toxicity/infectivity studies 328, Cellular immune-response test 328,  
Allergy 328
 Ecological/environmental tests (329)
 Rationale 329,  Acute injection tests on quail or ducks 329,  Freshwater 
fish toxicity and pathogenicity 329, 
 Freshwater aquatic invertebrate toxicity and pathogenicity 329,  Plant 
tests 330,  Nontarget insect testing
 and testing against honey bees 330,  Wild animal testing 330, Estuarine and 
marine animal toxicity and
 pathogenicity 330
 Key points to remember (330)
 Samples 330, Formulations 330,  Formulators' exemptions 331,  Data Sources 
331, Cite-all 331,
 Performance data 332, Residues tolerance 332,  Label 332
 Experimental use permits (332)
 Conditional registration (333)
 How to get registration in the US (334)
 Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) 335,  FIFRA & FFDCA requirements for 
microbial pesticides 335, 
 Data requirements 336,  Non target organisms 337 Mammalian toxicology & 
Product analysis data
 requirements 337,  APHIS 339, Local representation 340,  State 
registrations 341
7.3 European Union - the Pesticides Directive  (342)
 Provisions & Annexes (342)
 Data requirements for biopesticide active ingredients (343)
 Data requirements for biopesticide products (345)
7.4 United Kingdom (348)
  Definitions & Fees (349)
 Approvals (350)
 Data required (351)
 Acute toxicity and infectivity 351,  Subacute toxicity 351,  Allergenicity 
352, Known toxins 352)
 How To Get Registration in the UK (352)
7.5 Denmark  (353)
 Packaging & labelling 356,  Sale, storage, use 357 , Data requirements 358
7.6 Sweden (372)
7.7 Hungary (381)
7.8 Australia (391)
7.9 New Zealand (403)
7.10     Japan (414)
7.12     International guidelines (437)
7.13     Industry view (439)
 Introduction (439)
 Economic risks (440)
 Survey findings (440)
 Key areas requiring change (442)
 Conclusions (443)
8   Quality Control & Safety  (444)
8.1 QC & Liability (444)
 Failure to perform - negative liability  (444)
 Actively doing damage - positive liability  (445)
 Establishment of accepted quality standards  (446)
 8.1     Health & safety at work  (446)
9   Intellectual Property Rights & Protection (449)
9.1 Introduction (449)
9.2 Patents (449)
 What are patents (449)
 Patent routes (450)
 A common framework for biotechnology inventions  (450)
 Patents from nature and biodiversity (451)
 Scope of patent protection (453)
 Strain deposition (453)
 Public availability (454)
 The Budapest Treaty (454)
 Bacillus thuringiensis (454)
 Summary & Recommendations (455)
9.3 Trade secrets (458)
 Advantages & Disadvantages (458)
 Law of confidence (458)
 Establishing and keeping trade secrets  (459)
9.4 Trade marks (460)
9.4.1    Registration of a trade mark (460)
10  Companies (461) Companies marked with an * are included for historical 
interest
Abbott Laboratories (463)
AgBioChem  (464)
Agracetus (465)
AgrEvo (Hoechst/Roussel-Uclaf and Schering) (465)
Agricultural Genetics Company, MicroBio, MicroBio Rhizogen (466)
Agridyne* (468)
Agrimm Technologies  (469)
Agriphi (469)
Agrisense* (469)
AgriVirion  (470)
AgWest Biotech (470)
American Cyanamid  (470)
Andermatt-BIOCONTROL  (471)
Australian Technological Innovation Corporation (472)
Bactec* (472)
BASF  (473)
Bayer (474)
Becker Microbial Products  (475)
Biobest Biological Systems (476)
Bio-Care Technology (476)
BINAB  (476)
Biocontrol  (477)
Biosys (477)
Biotech Consortium India (479)
Biotechnology General* (480)
Boehringer Mannheim* (480)
Bunting Biological Control (480)
Caffaro* (481)
Calgene  (481)
Calliope  (482)
Chr. Hansen's Biosystem (482)
Ciba (483)
CPL Scientific  (485)
Crop Genetics International (  (485)
DowElanco (487)
Du Pont (488)
Eastman Kodak* (489)
Ecogen  (489)
EcoScience  (496)
E R Butts International (499)
Fairfax Biological Laboratory (499)
Gustafson  (499)
Herbos Chemicals (500)
Hindustan Insecticides  (500)
Hokko Chemical Industry  (500)
Horticulture Research International (501)
Idemitsu Kosan (501)
Insect Biotech Canada (502)
Intrachem (502)
ISK Biosciences (502)
Japan Tobacco  (502)
Kemira  (503)
Koppert  (504)
Kubota  (505)
Kynoch Chemicals (AECI) (505)
Lim Laboratories (505)
Lobel Chemical  (506)
Lubrizol Enterprises  (506)
Makhteshim-Agan (506)
Mauri Laboratories  (507)
MicroGeneSys (507)
Microbe (  (507)
Monsanto (508)
Mycogen  (509)
Mycotech (US) (514)
Mycotech (Can)  (515)
Nitto Denko  (515)
Nippon Soda (515)
Novo Nordisk (516)
Philom Bios  (519)
Plant Genetic Systems  (519)
Repligen Sandoz Research* (520)
Rhone-Poulenc (521)
Ricerca (521)
Rohm and Haas (521)
Ringer  (522)
Sandoz Agro (522)
SCAM  (524)
SDS Biotech  (524)
Shell* (524)
Shionogi (525)
SIAPA  (525)
Stine Microbial Products (525)
Sumitomo  (525)
Toagosei  (526)
Troy Biosciences (Fermone) (526)
W R Grace (527)
Zeneca (ICI Agrochemicals) (528)
11  Index of 2,680 terms (529)



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