truffler1635 at truffler1635 at
Thu Sep 16 02:16:00 EST 1999

The following article is from The Oregonian, Sept. 15, 1999, p A18



	CHRISTCHURCH, New Zealand -- President Clinton, warning that global
warming could bring cataclysmic consequences, announced the release
Wednesday of classified satellite images of part of Antarctica to help
scientists chart world climate changes. He said the two sets of images -
- take 10 years apart -- were “one small contribution” to the
understanding of climate change studies.
	“The overwhelming consensus of world scientific opinion is that
greenhouse gases from human activity are raising the Earth’s temperature
in a rapid and unsustainable way,” the president said in a speech at the
International Antarctica Center. “The five warmest years since the 15th
century have all been in the 1990s.”
	The data include seven previously classified images taken by U.S.
spy satellites in the mid 1970s and 1980s of the so-called Dry Valleys
	The new images are intended to give scientists a baseline for
environmental studies, including the monitoring of the Antarctic ozone
hole and the West Antarctic ice sheet.

COMMENT BY POSTER: As previously indicated by ice sheet depletion in
Greenland, reduction of glaciers in Alaska, huge iceberg calving from
both Antarctica and the North Pole, increased atmospheric CO2, decrease
of forests, and much increased fossil fuel burning, rather bizare
climatic conditions (can you say “Andrew and Floyd?”), global conditions
are changing are a more and more rapid rate, resulting in profound
species die-off. As the comic strip character Pogo said, “We have met
the enemy, and he is us.”

For 4000-5000 years, man has been parasitic on forests: he takes but has
not given back, and only recently has replanted in some areas. It is
time for him to grow with forests, to become symbiotic.

One way to reduce global impact of increased CO2 is to plant more trees,
especially fast-growing trees. A key to growing such trees is to
inoculate mycorrhizal fungi with them.

A four-year-old seedling Douglas fir was 22-inches high in 1990 when
planted near Oregon City Oregon. At least three species of truffle had
been collected at the site in 1990: Rhizopogon vinicolor, Barssia
oregonensis, and Tuber gibbosum.  All three fungi are mycorrhizal, and
had been introduced to the stand in 1986-88. These mycorrhizae gather
potassium, water, nitrogen, phosphorus and calcium from the soil or
leach them from rocks. All are known to be associated with Rhizobium
bacteria, which fix atmospheric nitrogen. Between February, 1990 and
October, 1990 this seedling tree grew over 9.5 feet. Three years after
planting, it was producing Oregon White truffles (Tuber gibbosum). I
hold that fungi can be a multiple crop for tree farmers, producing
several crops of fungi while increasing the tree’s biomass. More can be
found on this in Paul Stamets’ “Growing Gourmet and Medicinal Mushrooms”
under the heading of “Permaculture with a Mycological Twist.”

Trees that associate with many mycorrhizal fungi are less prone to
stresses, such as overcrowding, drought, insect infestation, fire, wind
storm, and root rots. In addition, they become the crown trees of the
stand, providing habitat for voles, mice, squirrels, bats, owls, and
hosts of bryophytes, lichens and fungi. Trees inoculated with
mycorrhizae today may well become the watersheds of next century, and
the old-growth-like forests of the century after that.

It is time that our nation offer long-term management strategy
incentives to forest owners and growers. Our future may well depend on

Daniel B. Wheeler

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