Some historic agroforestry products

r mcguiness armich at
Sat Jun 9 22:58:32 EST 2001

Hello Dan, Is there a website for the Oregonian to read these articles? Thanks
Richard McGuiness

"Daniel B. Wheeler" wrote:

> The following is extracted from "The Natural Legacy of Lewis and
> Clark," by Jolene Krawczak, published as a special report by The
> Oregonian on May 24, 2001. The article covers several pages, and is
> too long in my opinion to offer here complete.
> Highlights of the article mention several of the 176 plants described
> by Lewis and Clark during their historic expedition:
> Osage Orange (Maclura pomifera): used by Jamie Easter in Iowa to make
> high-quality bows from.
> Purple Coneflower (Echinacea angustifolia): Medicinal herb
> inaccurately identified in the article (purple coneflower is Echinacea
> purpurea, E. angustifolia is white) used to "fortify the immune system
> and the lessen the effect of colds and flue".
>         "Lewis and Clark had learned of echinacea from the Native Americans,
> who used it as a cure for snake bite, "the cure of mad dogs" (Clark)
> and "An excellent poltice for swellings or soar throat" (Lewis)."
>         Before going out to make your fortune picking Echinacea, be aware
> that "Glinda Crawford, professor of environmental studies at the
> University of North Dakota, has been a leader in the fight to preserve
> wild ecinhacea. Thanks in part to her effors, "bio-prospecting" of the
> wild plants without permits or permission is now illegal in several
> states along the Lewis and Clark Trail. North Dakoa legislators have
> made illegal collection of echinacea a Class A misdemeanor punishable
> by a year in prison and a $2,000 fine and subject to civil penalties
> of a $10,000 fine and forfeiture of a vehicle used to transport
> illegal echinacea."
> Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta): being used to make lodgepole pine
> furniture by Bill and Dave Fortner in Lolo, Montana, who were
> interviewed by Martha Stewart. Furniture is just one of the new
> businesses being shaped by new forestry. According to the article, new
> forestry: "...accommodates multiple uses, including logging,
> recreation, wildlife habitat and commercial pursuits, such as the
> Fortners' roadside business. they make their furniture of standing
> deadwood, including trees burned in last summer's widespread fires."
> Prickly Pear Cactus (Opuntia polyacantha): "Overgrazing by heards of
> buffalo depleted the natural grasses and allowed the prickly pear to
> invade and cover the bare soil."
>         "Today the Great Falls have been dammed and much of the surrounding
> land is now covered with wheat farms. But prickly pear still grows
> where it gets the chance - on rocky slopes, on roadsides where the
> soil has been distubred and not replanted, and tucked low in fields of
> taller grasses."
>         That would seems to make prickly pear one of the first noxious weeds
> introduced by overgrazing. Yet it is edible, once the spines have been
> removed, and has been used as cattle feed. No word yet whether it
> makes good buffalo food.
> Lewis's Wild Flax (Linum lewisii): being cultivated and made into
> linseed oil, fresh-ground meal high in Omega-3 essential fatty acids,
> and fiber.
>         "The market for flax - other than for linseed oil or as a fiber - has
> never been big because ground or processed flax quickly loses health
> benefits if not used shortly after grinding. Heintzman solved the
> problem by selling whole flx in kits that include small coffee
> grinders to grind each day's supply. He also has worked out a process
> to stabilize the flax oil in a nutrition bar that actually tastes
> good."
> Subsequent articles also covered cottonwood, camas, bitterroot, and
> sagebrush.
> Posted as a courtesy by
> Daniel B. Wheeler

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