Hayflick's Book

Jones M. Murphy, Jr. morphy at alumni.caltech.edu
Mon Jan 2 21:41:03 EST 1995


In article <3e99u7$8vn at cronkite.ocis.temple.edu> gold at astro.ocis.temple.edu (Bert Gold) writes:
>From: gold at astro.ocis.temple.edu (Bert Gold)
>Subject: Hayflick's Book
>Date: 2 Jan 1995 16:34:15 GMT

>Netters:

>Have you read Leonard Hayflick's Book on "How and Why we Age" ?


>Are you interested in conversing about this book     
>an attempt to provide a unified theory of
>current thinking on apoptosis and
>aging? 

>Perhaps we can write some kind of minireview together...

>I would be interested in communicating with others thinking about
>this issue.

>Bert Gold

I posted this review in  the sci-life-extension newsgroup:

From: morphy at alumni.caltech.edu (Jones M. Murphy, Jr.)
Subject: REVIEW:How And Why We Age, by Leonard Hayflick (Ballantine Books, 1994)
Date: Wed, 5 Oct 1994 19:12:53 GMT

Leonard Hayflick is a cell biologist specializing in aging--a 
biogerontologist, as he describes himself. He is co-discoverer of the Hayflick 
limit, which is the number of times cells from a particular kind of 
differentiated tissue divide before dying(0, for example, in the case of brain 
or muscle cells).

The book is a detailed survey of aging in humans, covering demography, 
physiology, and psychology. It continues by describing various strategies 
aimed at slowing the aging process. The author appears to be quite skeptical 
of all strategies except caloric restriction. However, he feels it's an 
unacceptable sacrifice in terms of quality of life.

The author also goes on to discuss the desirability of extending life. He 
appears to be much more interested in extending health, than extending life. 
His views are well thought out and provocative, although I disagree with him.
I heartily recommend the book, despite the fact that it's really a detailed 
exposition of why we don't know what aging is!
Jones

By the way, the ISBN is 0-345-33918-5

Here's the scanned-in Table Of Contents, with apologies for any mispellings my 
scanner may have rendered.

FOREWORD by Robert N. Butler, M.D......................................




Introduction......................


P A R T O N E: What Is Aging?
1. Defining Aging..................................
    Chronological versus Biological Age 12
    Longevity Aging, and Death Z5
    How Old Are You-Really? 16

2. Some Animals Age, Some Do Not......
    Animals That Do Not Age 21
    Aging by Wear and Tear 23
    Animals That Regenerate 24
    "Big Bang" Reproduction and Aging 24
    How Long Do Animals Live? 27

3. Redwood Trees Are Not Old.........
    Aging and Cell Lineages 35
    Grafts and Aging 36
    Roots, Shoots, and Aging 36
    Programmed Aging 37
    The Longevity of Seeds 39

 4. Aging Is Not a Disease.........
    Normal Age Changes 44
    Causes of Death 45
    Age-related Illnesses 47
    Population versus Individual Aging 48



        PART TWO: Aging by The Numbers

6. The Demographic Facts of Life.......
    The Graying of America 54
    The Statistics Today 57
    The Statistics Tomorrow 59
    Some Geographical Facts 59

fi. Actuarial Aging.........................
    The Likelihood of Death 64
    Are We Living Longer? 66
    How Many Years Are Left? 67
    The Tables of Life 68
    Life Tables for Animals 77
    The Curves of Life 77
    Rectangularizing the Survival Curve 83
    Yes, We Are Living Longer 84

7. A Long and Healthy Life...-.. ......
    What Is Your Active Life Expectation? 90
    Extending Health and Compressing Illness
    ls Life Span Fixed Or Changing? 93
    Do Some Occupations Favor Longevity? 94
    What Will Happen When All Diseases Are Cured? 96
    Why Do Women Live Longer than Men? 101
    Is There a Weaker Sex? 104
    Accelerated Aging in Humans 107
   Why Are We Old at Age Sixty-Five? 108


          PART THREE: How Do We Age?

8. Aging under Glass..................
    Aging in a Bottle 112
    An Old Dogma Dies 116
    Transplanting Normal Cells 124
    Aging Adult Cells 126
    Accelerated Aging in a Bottle
    Carrel's Mistake 127
    Life in the Cold 130
    Cellular Memory 130
    A Practical Use 131
    Cell Aging and Cell Longevity 132
    The Latent Period 136

9. The Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging...................

    Separating Facts from Myths 142
    Changes in Appearance 143
    Dental Changes 143
    Weight and Metabolic Changes 143
    Changes in the Cardiovascular System 144
    Changes in Reaction Time 144
    Cognitive Changes 144
    Personality Changes 145
    Changes in Sexual Activity 145
    Changes in the Senses 146
    Physiological Changes 146
    Changes in Strength 147
    Gender Differences in Aging 147
    General Conclusions from the BLSA 148

10. How We Change with Age...............................................
    The Cardiovascular System 151
    The Immune System 153
    The Endocrine System 155
    The Female Reproductive System 157
    The Male Reproductive System 159
    The Skeletal System 160
    The Nervous System 161
    The Brain 161

11. Aging from Head to Foot.................................................

    Height 166
    Weight 167
    Chest Size 168
    Arm Span 168
    Face 168
    Skull  168
    Skeleton 169
    Body Composition
    Body Water 169
    Skin 170
      WRlNKLES . SWEAT GLANDS · TEMPERATURE CONTROL .
      HEALING CAPAClTY
    Fingernails 174
    Hair 175
    Hearing 176
    Taste 177
    Smell 178
    Sight 179
    Sleep 179
    Nutrition 18l
    Metabolism 182
    Capacity for Exercise 184
    Chronic Diseases 185
    Aging Has Its Compensations 185



         PART FOUR: Why Do We Age?

12. Centenarians and Supercentenarians........................
    Superlongevity throughout the Ages 190
    LUIGI CORNARO AND THE SPARTAN LIFE . DESCARTES AND
    BACON . EARLY BLOOD TRANSFUSIONS . SUPERLONGEVOUS
    INDIVIDUALS . MODERN SKEPTICISM
    Are There Superlongevous People? 196
    What about Centenarians? 202
    The Increased Likelihood of Reaching Age One Hundred 2a
    Some Statistical Characteristics of Centenarians 206

13. Determining Life Span...............................................
    How Life Span Relates to Brain Weight and Body Weight 2
    Body Temperature and Metabolic Rate 212
    Lengthening Life Spans 213
    Did Age Evolve? 215
    The Importance of Redundancy 216

14. Theories of Aging Based on Purposeful Events.....
    Early Ideas About Aging 223
    THE "VITAL SUBSTANCE" THEORY · THE GENETIC MUTATION
    THEORY . THE REPRODUCTIVE EXHAUSTION THEORY
    Why Modern Theories of Aging Are Still Speculative 226
    Rules of the Game 228
    Is Aging Accidental or Programmed? 229
    Aging By Design 229
    The Neuroendocrine Theory 231
    Down the Brain-cell Drain 233

15. Theories of Aging Based on Random Events.......
    The Wear and Tear Theory 236
    The Rate of Living Theory 239
    The Waste Product Accumulation Theory 247
    The Cross-linking Theory 242
    The Free Radical Theory 244
    The Immune System Theory 248
    Theories of Errors and Repairs 250
    The Order to Disorder Theory 257
    Why Do We Age? 258
    A Personal View 259



         PART FIVE: Slowing Aging and
             Increasing Life Span


16. Early Attempts to Control Aging.....

    Should We Try to Cheat Death? 265
    Should We to Control Aging? 267
    Rejuvenating Substances 269
    Alchemy 269
    Cavorting 271
    Scrotum Hokum and Other Nonsense 272
    Cell Therapy 274
    Yogurt 274
    Sterilization 275
    Procaine 276


17. How Exercise, Nutrition, and Weight Affect Longevity
    The Effect of Exercise on Aging and Life Span 278
    The Longevity of College Athletes 280
    The Longevity of Baseball Players 282
    The Longevity of Old Athletes 282
    Is There an Antiaging Diet? 283
    How Does Caloric Restriction Work? 287
    Can Humans Increase Their Longevity by Caloric Restriction? 289
    Ideal Weight and Longevity 292


18. How Temperature, Light, Transfusions, and Suspended
    Animation Affect Longevity..............................................
    Temperature and Aging 296
    Suspended Animation 298
    Cryonics 300
    Aging in the Dark 301
    Can Transfusions Affect Longevity? 302


19. The Clocks That Time Us....  .......
    Our Perception of the Passage of Time 304
    Circadian Rhythms 305
    Where Is the Clock? 307
    Aging Clocks 308
    A Sure Way to Slow Aging 308
    An Easy Way to Increase Your Longevity 310

            PART SIX: The Future of
          Human Aging and Longevity

zo. Life Extension and Antiaging Therapies...........

    Antiaging Therapies and Profits 314
    How Do We Test What Cannot Be Measured? 31S
    What Would Happen if We Learned How to Manipulate Longevity? 315
    At What Age Are We Most Productive? 316

21. Aging and Longevity in the Twenty-first Century....
    The Effect of Genetics on Future Longevity 319
    The Effect of Nurture on Future Longevity 321
    Twenty-first-Century Demographics 322
    Our Future Selves 325
    Living the Rectangular Life 330
    Can We Extend Our Life Span? 331
    Research on Longevity and Aging Today 332
    What Should Our Goals Be? 334
    No More Aging: Blessing or Nightmare? 336
    Immortality 338
    The Population Bomb 339
    How to Increase Life Expectation 341








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