Abstracts on Picamilon, Pikamilon, and Pikamilona but not Pikamilone

Darryl R. Lum drlum at ibm.net
Thu Nov 7 18:00:00 EST 1996


I got a mailer from a nootropic supplier selling "Pikamilone".

I did a Medline search from 1966 to 1996 and found references for
"Picamilon", "Pikamilon" and "Pikamilona" but not "Pikamilone". 
"Pikamilona" is how the Russians spell it, and "Pikamilon" is how it is
translated into English.  It also is called Picamilon.  (seems to me silly
to change the spelling in translation but that's how medline did it).

Also, the research Pikamilon(a) is "nicotinoyl-GABA" while the Pikamilone
product is "a clever combination of NIACIN and GABA".  I believe that
NIACIN is not in any way a nicotinic receptor agonist.  I do not know the
technical relationship between Nicotinic receptors, "niconinoyl"
preparations, "nicotine" as found in cigarettes, and whether Niacin has
anything to do with it at all.  I do know however that nicotine has
cerebrovascular effects and alters cognition etc..  It seems to me that a
Nicotine-Gaba preparation would be markedly different than a Niacin-GABA
preparation, even though Niacin itself has its own vascular effects.

If anyone has more information on Pikamilone, please relay!

The research articles I found on Pikamilon(a) did >NOT< substantiate all
the claims that they made for Pikamilone, however the research is
interesting!

ARTICLE TITLE:  Effects of drugs on blood-brain barrier permeability in
rats chronically intoxicated by ethanol. 
ARTICLE SOURCE:  Ann Ist Super Sanita  (Italy), 1990, 26(1) p39-42 
AUTHOR(S):  Borisenko SA 
AUTHOR'S ADDRESS:  Department of Neuropharmacology, Academy of Medical
Sciences, USSR, Moscow. 
MAJOR SUBJECT HEADING(S):  Alcohol Deterrents [pharmacology]; Alcohol,
Ethyl [toxicity]; Alcoholism [physiopathology]; Blood-Brain Barrier [drug
effects] 
MINOR SUBJECT HEADING(S):  Alcohol, Ethyl [pharmacology]; Disulfiram
[pharmacology]; Dopa [metabolism]; Pinocytosis [drug effects]; Psychotropic
Drugs [pharmacology]; Rats, Inbred Strains; Rats; Tryptophan [metabolism];
Tyrosine [metabolism] 
INDEXING CHECK TAG(S):  Animal 
PUBLICATION TYPE:  JOURNAL ARTICLE 
ABSTRACT:  Male Wistar rats were divided in free choice conditions into
heavy-drinkers consuming greater than 3.5 g/kg of ethanol daily (HD), and
light-drinkers consuming less than 2.0 g/kg/day (LD). Subsequent 30 day
intragastric administration of 25% ethanol (8-11 g/kg/day) caused an
increase in permeability of the BBB to 14C-tyrosine, 14C-tryptophan and
14C-DOPA at all the stages of alcoholization. At late stages of
intoxication (20-30 days) the penetration of horseradish peroxidase (HRP)
indicating pinocytosis was present. All the changes were more pronounced in
LD than in HD rats. Disulfiram, and to a lesser extent phenazepam and
diazepam, when repeatedly injected (for 16-30 days) together with ethanol
aggravated its effects. Clonidine and haloperidol antagonized
ethanol-induced increase of the BBB permeability to labelled compounds and
HRP in the two groups of rats. Picamilon, lithium oxybutyrate,
chlorpromazine and alpha-tocopherol had little effect on the penetration of
radioactive tracers but effectively antagonized the penetration of HRP. The
other drugs were without effects on the BBB regulatory and barrier
functions altered by chronic alcoholization. In view of the BBB dysfunction
in chronic alcoholics the adequacy of the above-mentioned drugs for their
treatment is discussed. 
MEDLINE INDEXING DATE:  9012 
ISSN:  0021-2571 
LANGUAGE:  English 
UNIQUE NLM IDENTIFIER:  90365369 
CAS REGISTRY/EC NUMBER(S):   0 (Alcohol Deterrents); 55520-40-6 (Tyrosine);
63-84-3 (Dopa); 64-17-5 (Alcohol, Ethyl); 6912-86-3 (Tryptophan); 97-77-8
(Disulfiram) 

ARTICLE TITLE:  [The characteristics of the retinal absorption of labelled
preparations of pikamilon and GABA] 
VERNACULAR TITLE:  [Osobennosti pogloshcheniia setchatkoi mechenykh
preparatov pikamilona i GAMK.] 
ARTICLE SOURCE:  Fiziol Zh  (USSR), Mar-Apr 1991, 37(2) p116-8 
AUTHOR(S):  Logai IM; Leus NF; Rozanova ZA 
MAJOR SUBJECT HEADING(S):  GABA [analogs & derivatives] [pharmacokinetics];
Retina [metabolism] 
MINOR SUBJECT HEADING(S):  Absorption; Carbon Radioisotopes [diagnostic
use]; Cattle; Dose-Response Relationship, Drug; Time Factors 
INDEXING CHECK TAG(S):  Animal; Comparative Study; In Vitro 
CITATION TYPE:  English Abstract 
PUBLICATION TYPE:  JOURNAL ARTICLE 
ABSTRACT:  The velocity of absorption of GABA and its derivative picamilon
carbon-labelled by isolated bovine retina has been studied. It is shown
that maximal velocity of GABA and picamilon absorption falls at the second
incubation minute, then it decreases. In all the cases the picamilon
absorption velocity is higher than the GABA absorption velocity. With an
increase of concentration in the incubation medium of the labeled
preparation under study the absorption velocity of GABA remains practically
unchanged, while that of picamilon slightly increases. 
MEDLINE INDEXING DATE:  9110 
ISSN:  0201-8489 
LANGUAGE:  Russian 
UNIQUE NLM IDENTIFIER:  91276025 
CAS REGISTRY/EC NUMBER(S):   0 (Carbon Radioisotopes); 34562-97-5
(nicotinoyl-GABA); 56-12-2 (GABA) 

ARTICLE TITLE:  [Antihypoxic properties of GABA-containing vitamin
derivatives] 
VERNACULAR TITLE:  [Antigipoksicheskie svoistva GAMK-soderzhashchikh
proizvodnykh vitaminov.] 
ARTICLE SOURCE:  Farmakol Toksikol  (USSR), Jan-Feb 1989, 52(1) p56-8 
AUTHOR(S):  Karaev AL; Kovler MA; Avakumov VM; Kopelevich VM; Bulanova LN 
MAJOR SUBJECT HEADING(S):  Anoxia [drug therapy]; GABA [therapeutic use];
Vitamins [therapeutic use] 
MINOR SUBJECT HEADING(S):  Anoxemia [chemically induced] [drug therapy];
Drug Screening; GABA [analogs & derivatives]; Mice; Nitroprusside;
Pantothenic Acid [analogs & derivatives] [therapeutic use]; Pyridoxal
Phosphate [analogs & derivatives] [therapeutic use] 
INDEXING CHECK TAG(S):  Animal; Comparative Study; Male 
CITATION TYPE:  English Abstract 
PUBLICATION TYPE:  JOURNAL ARTICLE 
ABSTRACT:  The antihypoxic properties of GABA-containing vitamin
derivatives (pyridoxalphosphate-GABA, picamilone, pantogam, sodium
homopantothenate) as compared with GABA were studied. All agents were found
to increase mouse life expectancy under hypoxia in contrast to GABA. 
MEDLINE INDEXING DATE:  8908 
ISSN:  0014-8318 
LANGUAGE:  Russian 
UNIQUE NLM IDENTIFIER:  89211356 
CAS REGISTRY/EC NUMBER(S):   0 (Vitamins); 15078-28-1 (Nitroprusside);
1977-33-9 (pantogab); 34562-97-5 (nicotinoyl-GABA); 54-47-7 (Pyridoxal
Phosphate); 56-12-2 (GABA); 63221-68-1 (pyridoxal phosphate
gamma-aminobutyric acid); 79-83-4 (Pantothenic Acid) 


ARTICLE TITLE:  [The effect of antimigraine preparations on serotonin
transport in the brain synaptosomes of rats] 
VERNACULAR TITLE:  [Vliianie protivomigrenevykh preparatov na transport
serotonina v sinaptosomakh mozga krys.] 
ARTICLE SOURCE:  Farmakol Toksikol  (USSR), Nov-Dec 1989, 52(6) p39-43 
AUTHOR(S):  Pukhal'skaia TG; Maisov NI; Mirzoian RS 
MAJOR SUBJECT HEADING(S):  Anthranilic Acids [pharmacology]; Brain [drug
effects]; Ergolines [pharmacology]; GABA [analogs & derivatives];
Methysergide [pharmacology]; Migraine [drug therapy]; Nicergoline
[pharmacology]; Serotonin [metabolism]; Synaptosomes [drug effects] 
MINOR SUBJECT HEADING(S):  Biological Transport [drug effects]
[physiology]; Brain [metabolism]; Depression, Chemical; Dose-Response
Relationship, Drug; GABA [pharmacology]; Rats, Inbred Strains; Rats;
Synaptosomes [metabolism]; Tritium [diagnostic use] 
INDEXING CHECK TAG(S):  Animal; Comparative Study; Male 
CITATION TYPE:  English Abstract 
PUBLICATION TYPE:  JOURNAL ARTICLE 
ABSTRACT:  Methisergide and nicergoline act as competitive inhibitors
whereas tolfenamic acid as a non-competitive inhibitor of 3H-serotonin
accumulation which occurs with the involvement of the high-affinity system
of serotonin uptake by the rat brain synaptosomes. Methisergide,
nicergoline and tolfenamic acid at concentrations ranging close to Ki value
were found to enhance the basal and K(+)-induced release of 3H-serotonin
from the rat brain synaptosomes. The findings obtained indicate the ability
of the drugs to disturb serotonin transport. In addition, the drugs are
likely to exert the depleting effect on serotonin stores in serotoninergic
neurons. Picamilon failed to affect either the uptake or the release of
serotonin from the rat brain synaptosomes. 
MEDLINE INDEXING DATE:  9006 
ISSN:  0014-8318 
LANGUAGE:  Russian 
UNIQUE NLM IDENTIFIER:  90169075 
CAS REGISTRY/EC NUMBER(S):   0 (Anthranilic Acids); 0 (Ergolines);
10028-17-8 (Tritium); 13710-19-5 (tolfenamic acid); 27848-84-6
(Nicergoline); 34562-97-5 (nicotinoyl-GABA); 361-37-5 (Methysergide);
50-67-9 (Serotonin); 56-12-2 (GABA) 

ARTICLE TITLE:  [Results of the use of vasoactive preparation pikamilon in
pigmented retinal abiotrophy] 
VERNACULAR TITLE:  [Rezul'taty primeneniia vazoaktivnogo preparata
pikamilona pri pigmentnoi abiotrofii setchatki.] 
ARTICLE SOURCE:  Vestn Oftalmol  (Russia), Jul-Sep 1995, 111(3) p20-2 
AUTHOR(S):  Davydova GA; Mukha AI 
MAJOR SUBJECT HEADING(S):  GABA [analogs & derivatives]; Retinal Artery
[drug effects]; Retinal Degeneration [drug therapy]; Vasodilator Agents
[therapeutic use] 
MINOR SUBJECT HEADING(S):  Adolescence; Adult; Aged; GABA [administration &
dosage] [pharmacology] [therapeutic use]; Injections, Intramuscular; Middle
Age; Retinitis Pigmentosa [drug therapy]; Solutions; Time Factors;
Vasodilator Agents [administration & dosage] [pharmacology]; Visual Acuity;
Visual Fields 
INDEXING CHECK TAG(S):  Comparative Study; Female; Human; Male 
CITATION TYPE:  English Abstract 
PUBLICATION TYPE:  CLINICAL TRIAL; JOURNAL ARTICLE 
ABSTRACT:  Eighty patients with pigmented retinal abiotrophy (PRA) and 20
controls were examined. The perfusion pressure and arteriovenous
coefficient are markedly reduced in patients with stages 1-2 PRA, in
comparison with controls. Deterioration of the visual function in patients
with stages 3-4 PRA vs. that in stages 1-2 was associated with a more
marked reduction of the hemodynamic parameters and the status of ocular
vessels. Pikamilon therapy in a dose of 2 ml of 10% solution once a day
intramuscularly for 10 days led to improvement of the visual function and
ocular hemodynamics in patients with PRA. Treatment efficacy was higher in
patients with disease stages 1-2. Pikamilon is recommended for the
treatment of patients with PRA. 
MEDLINE INDEXING DATE:  9602 
ISSN:  0042-465X 
LANGUAGE:  Russian 
UNIQUE NLM IDENTIFIER:  96046228 
CAS REGISTRY/EC NUMBER(S):   0 (Solutions); 0 (Vasodilator Agents);
34562-97-5 (nicotinoyl-GABA); 56-12-2 (GABA) 

ARTICLE TITLE:  [Lipid peroxidation markers in the exhaled breath and
microsomal oxidation in patients with chronic diffuse liver diseases] 
VERNACULAR TITLE:  [Markery perekisnogo okisleniia lipidov v vydykhaemom
vozdukhe i mikrosomal'noe okislenie u bol'nykh s khronicheskimi
diffuzionnymi bolezniami pecheni.] 
ARTICLE SOURCE:  Ter Arkh  (Russia), 1995, 67(4) p50-3 
AUTHOR(S):  Loginov AS; Bendikov EA; Petrakov AV 
MAJOR SUBJECT HEADING(S):  Lipid Peroxidation; Liver Diseases [enzymology];
Microsomes, Liver [enzymology] 
MINOR SUBJECT HEADING(S):  Adult; Antipyrine [analysis] [diagnostic use]
[pharmacokinetics]; Biological Markers [analysis]; Breath Tests; Butanes
[analysis]; Chronic Disease; Liver Diseases [diagnosis]; Middle Age;
Molecular Weight; Pentanes [analysis]; Prognosis 
INDEXING CHECK TAG(S):  Comparative Study; Female; Human; Male 
CITATION TYPE:  English Abstract 
PUBLICATION TYPE:  JOURNAL ARTICLE 
ABSTRACT:  Low-molecular hydrocarbons (butan, pentan) from the exhaled air
as lipid peroxidation (LPO) markers were quantified in patients with
chronic diffuse liver diseases. The study was also made of microsomal
oxidation enzymic activity by antipirin metabolism. The above parameters
were followed up in the course of antioxidant treatment. As shown by total
butan and pentan levels, LPO activity varied with the disease, being high
in hepatic cirrhosis and primary biliary cirrhosis, but low in chronic
active hepatitis and fat dystrophy. Increased levels of butan and pentan
occurred in association with inhibited activity of P450-dependent
monooxygenases. This was determined by antipirin biotransformation and
confirmed by a strong inverse correlation between the amount of
hydrocarbons and antipirin metabolites (4-hydroxy- and norantipirin)
clearance. In the course of antioxidant therapy the most pronounced
inhibiting action on formation of low-molecular hydrocarbons was
distinctive of essenciale, pikamilon and copmplivit. Relevant efficacy of
carsil was weaker. Similar regularity for these drugs takes place in
relation to activation of microsomal oxidation. 
MEDLINE INDEXING DATE:  9509 
ISSN:  0040-3660 
LANGUAGE:  Russian 
UNIQUE NLM IDENTIFIER:  95304456 
CAS REGISTRY/EC NUMBER(S):   0 (Biological Markers); 0 (Butanes); 0
(Pentanes); 106-97-8 (butane); 109-66-0 (pentane); 60-80-0 (Antipyrine) 

ARTICLE TITLE:  [Results of pikamilon use in the treatment of patients with
open-angle glaucoma] 
VERNACULAR TITLE:  [Rezul'taty primeneniia pikamilona v lechenii bol'nykh
otkrytougol'noi glaukomoi.] 
ARTICLE SOURCE:  Vestn Oftalmol  (Russia), Oct-Dec 1994, 110(4) p4-7 
AUTHOR(S):  Kolomoitseva EM; Ermakova VN; Abdulkadyrova MZh 
MAJOR SUBJECT HEADING(S):  Analgesics [therapeutic use]; GABA [analogs &
derivatives]; Glaucoma, Open-Angle [drug therapy] 
MINOR SUBJECT HEADING(S):  Aged; Analgesics [administration & dosage]; GABA
[administration & dosage] [therapeutic use]; Time Factors 
INDEXING CHECK TAG(S):  Comparative Study; Female; Human; Male 
CITATION TYPE:  English Abstract 
PUBLICATION TYPE:  CLINICAL TRIAL; CONTROLLED CLINICAL TRIAL; JOURNAL
ARTICLE 
ABSTRACT:  Administration of pikamilon, a cerebrovascular and nootropic
drug, to patients with primary open-angle glaucoma with normalized
intraocular pressure and declining visual function resulted in improvement
of the central and peripheral visual fields manifesting by improvement of
individual sensitivity threshold, decreased area and intensity of scotomas;
the treatment had a favorable effect on light sensitivity and vision acuity
in some patients. No noticeable effect on arterial pressure was observed.
The drug did not reduce the intraocular pressure. 
MEDLINE INDEXING DATE:  9506 
ISSN:  0042-465X 
LANGUAGE:  Russian 
UNIQUE NLM IDENTIFIER:  95176463 
CAS REGISTRY/EC NUMBER(S):   0 (Analgesics); 34562-97-5 (nicotinoyl-GABA);
56-12-2 (GABA) 

ARTICLE TITLE:  [The effect of pikamilon and fenibut on the blood supply of
the brain at rest and under gravitational exposures] 
VERNACULAR TITLE:  [Vliianie pikamilona i fenibuta na krovosnabzhenie
golovnogo mozga v usloviiakh pokoia i pri gravitatsionnykh vozdeistviiakh.]

ARTICLE SOURCE:  Eksp Klin Farmakol  (Russia), Jan-Feb 1993, 56(1) p28-31 
AUTHOR(S):  Sapegin ID; Beketov AI 
MAJOR SUBJECT HEADING(S):  Brain [blood supply] [drug effects]; GABA
[analogs & derivatives]; Gravitation; Rest [physiology] 
MINOR SUBJECT HEADING(S):  Brain [metabolism]; GABA [pharmacology]; Motion
Sickness [physiopathology]; Oxygen Consumption [drug effects]; Partial
Pressure; Posture; Rabbits 
INDEXING CHECK TAG(S):  Animal; Comparative Study; Female; Male 
CITATION TYPE:  English Abstract 
PUBLICATION TYPE:  JOURNAL ARTICLE 
ABSTRACT:  The effects of Picamilonum, 10 mg/kg, and Phenibutum, 50 mg/kg,
on the cerebral blood flow, oxygen saturation and vascular reactivity in
the cerebral cortex, thalamus, and hypothalamus were studied at rest during
antiorthostatic hypokinesia and while rocking in antiorthostasis.
Picamilonum was shown to have more steady vasodilatory effect, but it
decreased a cerebrovascular response to CO2 and O2 inhalation. The
reactivity of cerebral vessels to antiorthostasis under the influence of
the drugs inversed, that of cerebrovascular vessels to CO2 inhalation
decreased. Picamilonum enhanced vasoconstrictory responses to CO2
inhalation, whereas Phenibutum decreased it. With the combined effects of
Phenibutum and Picamilonum, while rocking in antiorthostasis, a phase of
vasodilatation was not observed and oxygen saturation and cerebrovascular
reactivity were decreased. 
MEDLINE INDEXING DATE:  9310 
ISSN:  0869-2092 
LANGUAGE:  Russian 
UNIQUE NLM IDENTIFIER:  93313503 
CAS REGISTRY/EC NUMBER(S):   1078-21-3 (4-amino-3-phenylbutyric acid);
34562-97-5 (nicotinoyl-GABA); 56-12-2 (GABA) 

ARTICLE TITLE:  [Effect of psychotropic drugs on the structure and function
of the adrenal glands of control and stressed animals] 
VERNACULAR TITLE:  [Osobennosti vliianiia psikhotropnykh sredstv na
strukturno-funktsional'noe sostoianie nadpochechnikov intaktnykh i
stressirovannykh zhivotnykh.] 
ARTICLE SOURCE:  Probl Endokrinol (Mosk)  (USSR), May-Jun 1992, 38(3) p41-4

AUTHOR(S):  Kresiun VI; Rozhkovskii Ia V 
MAJOR SUBJECT HEADING(S):  Adrenal Glands [drug effects]; Psychotropic
Drugs [pharmacology]; Stress [physiopathology] 
MINOR SUBJECT HEADING(S):  Adrenal Glands [pathology] [physiopathology];
Ascorbic Acid [metabolism]; Chronic Disease; Hypertrophy [physiopathology];
Lipids [metabolism]; Phospholipids [metabolism]; Rats, Inbred Strains;
Rats; Reference Values; Stress [pathology] 
INDEXING CHECK TAG(S):  Animal; Male 
CITATION TYPE:  English Abstract 
PUBLICATION TYPE:  JOURNAL ARTICLE 
ABSTRACT:  The purpose of the experiment was to investigate the structure
and function of the rat adrenal glands under chronic stress and its
correction. Chronic stress is known to cause hypertrophy of the adrenals,
enlargement of the area of nuclei and width of the cortical and medullary
layers, a decrease in the content and pathological distribution of
phospholipids, ascorbic acid and neutral lipids reflecting the function of
these glands. Preventive courses of litonit, pikamilon and, to a lesser
degree, piracetam and relanium weakened or removed characteristic
pathomorphological changes in the adrenal structure. Complex analysis of
the extracerebral mechanisms of each drug revealed the highest preventive
activity of litonit which can be used to correct the adrenal glands under
chronic stress. 
MEDLINE INDEXING DATE:  9212 
ISSN:  0375-9660 
LANGUAGE:  Russian 
UNIQUE NLM IDENTIFIER:  92383170 
CAS REGISTRY/EC NUMBER(S):   0 (Lipids); 0 (Phospholipids); 0 (Psychotropic
Drugs); 50-81-7 (Ascorbic Acid) 

ARTICLE TITLE:  [Pikamilon pharmacokinetics in animals] 
VERNACULAR TITLE:  [Farmakokinetika pikamilona u zhivotnykh.] 
ARTICLE SOURCE:  Farmakol Toksikol  (USSR), Mar-Apr 1991, 54(2) p66-9 
AUTHOR(S):  Dorofeev BF; Kholodov LE 
MAJOR SUBJECT HEADING(S):  Analgesics [pharmacokinetics]; GABA [analogs &
derivatives] 
MINOR SUBJECT HEADING(S):  Analgesics [administration & dosage] [analysis];
Biological Availability; Carbon Radioisotopes [diagnostic use];
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug; GABA [administration & dosage] [analysis]
[pharmacokinetics]; Mice; Rats; Time Factors; Tissue Distribution 
INDEXING CHECK TAG(S):  Animal 
CITATION TYPE:  English Abstract 
PUBLICATION TYPE:  JOURNAL ARTICLE 
ABSTRACT:  Pycamilon was shown to be rapidly absorbed in the blood (tmax =
0.23 h), to penetrate well through the blood-brain barrier and to be
intensively uptaken by the animal organs and tissues and to be eliminated
mainly in the urine (t1/2 = 0.51 h). The drug bioavailability at oral
administration to mice is 21.9%, and to rats from 53 to 78.9% (according to
the urinary excretion data). 
MEDLINE INDEXING DATE:  9112 
ISSN:  0014-8318 
LANGUAGE:  Russian 
UNIQUE NLM IDENTIFIER:  91357158 
CAS REGISTRY/EC NUMBER(S):   0 (Analgesics); 0 (Carbon Radioisotopes);
34562-97-5 (nicotinoyl-GABA); 56-12-2 (GABA) 

ARTICLE TITLE:  [The characteristics of the retinal absorption of labelled
preparations of pikamilon and GABA] 
VERNACULAR TITLE:  [Osobennosti pogloshcheniia setchatkoi mechenykh
preparatov pikamilona i GAMK.] 
ARTICLE SOURCE:  Fiziol Zh  (USSR), Mar-Apr 1991, 37(2) p116-8 
AUTHOR(S):  Logai IM; Leus NF; Rozanova ZA 
MAJOR SUBJECT HEADING(S):  GABA [analogs & derivatives] [pharmacokinetics];
Retina [metabolism] 
MINOR SUBJECT HEADING(S):  Absorption; Carbon Radioisotopes [diagnostic
use]; Cattle; Dose-Response Relationship, Drug; Time Factors 
INDEXING CHECK TAG(S):  Animal; Comparative Study; In Vitro 
CITATION TYPE:  English Abstract 
PUBLICATION TYPE:  JOURNAL ARTICLE 
ABSTRACT:  The velocity of absorption of GABA and its derivative picamilon
carbon-labelled by isolated bovine retina has been studied. It is shown
that maximal velocity of GABA and picamilon absorption falls at the second
incubation minute, then it decreases. In all the cases the picamilon
absorption velocity is higher than the GABA absorption velocity. With an
increase of concentration in the incubation medium of the labeled
preparation under study the absorption velocity of GABA remains practically
unchanged, while that of picamilon slightly increases. 
MEDLINE INDEXING DATE:  9110 
ISSN:  0201-8489 
LANGUAGE:  Russian 
UNIQUE NLM IDENTIFIER:  91276025 
CAS REGISTRY/EC NUMBER(S):   0 (Carbon Radioisotopes); 34562-97-5
(nicotinoyl-GABA); 56-12-2 (GABA) 

ARTICLE TITLE:  [Molecular mechanisms of the membrane-protective effect of
litonit in chronic stress] 
VERNACULAR TITLE:  [Molekuliarnye mekhanizmy membranoprotektornogo effekta
litonita pri khronicheskom stresse.] 
ARTICLE SOURCE:  Biull Eksp Biol Med  (USSR), Jul 1990, 110(7) p63-5 
AUTHOR(S):  Kresiun VI; Rozhkovskii Ia V 
MAJOR SUBJECT HEADING(S):  Nicotinic Acids [therapeutic use]; Stress [drug
therapy]; Tranquilizing Agents [therapeutic use] 
MINOR SUBJECT HEADING(S):  Antioxidants [metabolism]; Cell Membrane [drug
effects]; Chronic Disease; Erythrocyte Membrane [drug effects];
Hypercholesterolemia [etiology] [prevention & control]; Nicotinic Acids
[administration & dosage]; Rats, Inbred Strains; Rats; Stress
[complications] [metabolism]; Time Factors; Tranquilizing Agents
[administration & dosage] 
INDEXING CHECK TAG(S):  Animal; Comparative Study; Male 
CITATION TYPE:  English Abstract 
PUBLICATION TYPE:  JOURNAL ARTICLE 
ABSTRACT:  It is confirmed that prophylactic use of Pyracetam (500 mg/kg),
Pikamilon (10 mg/kg) and new product of GABA B-44 (30 mg/kg) for 10-days in
the conditions of chronic stress normalizes the activity of the key enzymes
of antiradical defence and the content of lipid peroxides, warns the
decrement of phospholipids and the changes in its qualitative ratio,
prevents multidirectional changes in the activity of ferments-markers in
the membrane of the brain and erythrocytes. It is concluded that nootropic
agents give membrane stabilizing effects. 
MEDLINE INDEXING DATE:  9102 
ISSN:  0365-9615 
LANGUAGE:  Russian 
UNIQUE NLM IDENTIFIER:  91028208 
CAS REGISTRY/EC NUMBER(S):   0 (Antioxidants); 0 (Nicotinic Acids); 0
(Tranquilizing Agents); 88161-48-2 (litonit) 

ARTICLE TITLE:  [Comparative study of the effect of picamilone and
piracetam on learning in rats in a radial maze] 
VERNACULAR TITLE:  [Sravnitel'noe izuchenie vliianiia pikamilona i
piratsetama na obuchenie krys v radial'nom labirinte.] 
ARTICLE SOURCE:  Farmakol Toksikol  (USSR), Jul-Aug 1989, 52(4) p14-7 
AUTHOR(S):  Voznesenskii AG; Kovalev GV; Sazhin VA 
MAJOR SUBJECT HEADING(S):  GABA [analogs & derivatives]; Learning [drug
effects]; Piracetam [pharmacology]; Pyrrolidinones [pharmacology] 
MINOR SUBJECT HEADING(S):  GABA [pharmacology]; Memory, Short-Term [drug
effects]; Memory [drug effects]; Rats 
INDEXING CHECK TAG(S):  Animal; Comparative Study; Male 
CITATION TYPE:  English Abstract 
PUBLICATION TYPE:  JOURNAL ARTICLE 
ABSTRACT:  During four weeks rats were learned to visit consequently 4
baited arms in the 8-armed radial maze. Picamilone (nicotinoyl-GABA) in a
dose of 10 mg/kg daily accelerated rats to reach 80% level of learning (to
20-28 trials). After picamilone injections rats obtained the maximal level
of short-term memory as just 3-5 trials. Piracetam in a dose of 200 mg/kg
daily exerted no effects on long-term and short-term memory of rats in the
radial maze. 
MEDLINE INDEXING DATE:  9002 
ISSN:  0014-8318 
LANGUAGE:  Russian 
UNIQUE NLM IDENTIFIER:  90033254 
CAS REGISTRY/EC NUMBER(S):   0 (Pyrrolidinones); 34562-97-5
(nicotinoyl-GABA); 56-12-2 (GABA); 7491-74-9 (Piracetam) 

ARTICLE TITLE:  [Effect of pikamilon on the cortical blood supply and
microcirculation in the pial arteriole system] 
VERNACULAR TITLE:  [Vliianie pikamilona na krovosnabzhenie kory i
mikrotsirkuliatsiiu v sisteme pial'nykh arteriol.] 
ARTICLE SOURCE:  Biull Eksp Biol Med  (USSR), May 1989, 107(5) p581-2 
AUTHOR(S):  Mirzoian RS; Gan'shina TS; Kosoi MIu; Aleksandrin VV;
Aleksandrin PN 
MAJOR SUBJECT HEADING(S):  Cerebral Cortex [drug effects]; GABA [analogs &
derivatives]; Pia Mater [drug effects] 
MINOR SUBJECT HEADING(S):  Arterioles [drug effects]; Cerebral Cortex
[blood supply]; Electrodes, Implanted; GABA [pharmacology]; Pia Mater
[blood supply]; Rabbits; Rats; Time Factors; Vasodilation [drug effects] 
INDEXING CHECK TAG(S):  Animal; Comparative Study; Male 
CITATION TYPE:  English Abstract 
PUBLICATION TYPE:  JOURNAL ARTICLE 
ABSTRACT:  Pikamilon was shown to increase blood supply in cerebral cortex
in conscious rats and rabbits. The increase in blood flow has been revealed
under intravenous, intraperitoneal and systemic administration of the drug.
There is a pronounced dilatation of pial arterioles under pikamilon action
while applied locally. Most dilation occurs in arterioles with the initial
diameter of 10-20 microns. With the increase of pial arterioles diameter,
dilatory effect of pikamilon, is reduced. 
MEDLINE INDEXING DATE:  8910 
ISSN:  0365-9615 
LANGUAGE:  Russian 
UNIQUE NLM IDENTIFIER:  89287466 
CAS REGISTRY/EC NUMBER(S):   34562-97-5 (nicotinoyl-GABA); 56-12-2 (GABA) 

ARTICLE TITLE:  [The new cerebrovascular preparation pikamilon] 
VERNACULAR TITLE:  [Novyi tserebrovaskuliarnyi preparat pikamilon.] 
ARTICLE SOURCE:  Farmakol Toksikol  (USSR), Jan-Feb 1989, 52(1) p23-6 
AUTHOR(S):  Mirzoian RS; Gan'shina TS 
MAJOR SUBJECT HEADING(S):  Cerebrovascular Circulation [drug effects]; GABA
[analogs & derivatives] 
MINOR SUBJECT HEADING(S):  Cats; Cerebral Ischemia, Transient [drug
therapy] [etiology] [physiopathology]; Cerebrovascular Disorders
[chemically induced] [drug therapy] [physiopathology]; Drug Screening;
Electrocardiography; GABA [pharmacology] [therapeutic use]; Hemodynamics
[drug effects]; Serotonin [pharmacology]; Wakefulness [drug effects]
[physiology]; Xenon Radioisotopes [diagnostic use] 
INDEXING CHECK TAG(S):  Animal; Comparative Study 
CITATION TYPE:  English Abstract 
PUBLICATION TYPE:  JOURNAL ARTICLE 
ABSTRACT:  Picamilon, a sodium salt of N-nicotinoyl-gamma-aminobutyric
acid, was shown to induce a significant increase of cerebral blood flow in
conscious cats. Picamilon was found to inhibit neurogenic spasms of
cerebral vessels that was followed by suppression of tonic activity and
reflectory discharges in sympathetic nerves. Picamilon led to restoration
of the initial condition of cerebral hemodynamics disturbed by a previous
administration of serotonin. 
MEDLINE INDEXING DATE:  8908 
ISSN:  0014-8318 
LANGUAGE:  Russian 
UNIQUE NLM IDENTIFIER:  89211344 
CAS REGISTRY/EC NUMBER(S):   0 (Xenon Radioisotopes); 50-67-9 (Serotonin);
56-12-2 (GABA) 

ARTICLE TITLE:  [Use of pikamilon in the combined treatment of patients
with cerebral circulatory disorders] 
VERNACULAR TITLE:  [Primenenie pikamilona v kompleksnom lechenii bol'nykh s
rasstroistvami mozgovogo krovoobrashcheniia.] 
ARTICLE SOURCE:  Vrach Delo  (USSR), Dec 1988, (12) p18-9 
AUTHOR(S):  Zinchenko VA; Popov EA; Kalinichev SN; Lobzhanidze PV 
MAJOR SUBJECT HEADING(S):  Cerebrovascular Disorders [drug therapy]; GABA
[therapeutic use]; Nicotinic Acids [therapeutic use] 
MINOR SUBJECT HEADING(S):  Adult; Aged; Brain [drug effects]
[physiopathology]; Cerebrovascular Disorders [physiopathology]
[psychology]; Combined Modality Therapy; Drug Combinations; Drug
Evaluation; Middle Age; Psychophysiology; Tablets 
INDEXING CHECK TAG(S):  Comparative Study; Human 
CITATION TYPE:  English Abstract 
PUBLICATION TYPE:  JOURNAL ARTICLE 
MEDLINE INDEXING DATE:  8908 
ISSN:  0049-6804 
LANGUAGE:  Russian 
UNIQUE NLM IDENTIFIER:  89224243 
CAS REGISTRY/EC NUMBER(S):   0 (Drug Combinations); 0 (Nicotinic Acids); 0
(Tablets); 56-12-2 (GABA) 

Darryl R. Lum
mailto:drlum at ibm.net





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