Polychaeta in a coral paper

Helmut Zibrowius hzibrowi at com.univ-mrs.fr
Wed Feb 11 10:57:37 EST 1998


Cairns S.D., Zibrowius H., 1997. Cnidaria Anthozoa: azooxanthellate
Scleractinia from the Philippine and Indonesian regions. In: Crosnier A.,
Bouchet P. (ed.), Resultats des campagnes MUSORSTOM, volume 16. Memoires
du Museum national d'histoire naturelle, 172: 27-243.

This contains a chapter mentioning polychaetes in symbiosis with corals.
Here the text of this chapter (p. 58-59):
------------

Commensal relationships

   Several types of specialized coral symbionts (other than simple 
epibionts) have been found associated with various members of the species-
rich fauna of the Philippines and Indonesia studied here. 

Lumbrinerid polychaete eroding the coral skeleton.
   This association has been described in detail by ZIBROWIUS et al. (1975) 
on the basis of material from the northeastern Atlantic and the 
southwestern Indian Ocean (South Africa), with additional records from 
Madagascar, the China Sea and Japan. The coral skeleton eroding polychaete 
Lumbrineris flabelliocola (Fage, 1936) inhabits a soft tube exteriorly 
attached to the host and causes a superficial to deep erosion of the coral 
skeleton. The worm itself is easily lost by the mechanical constraints of 
dredging and the subsequent manipulations, but frequently empty tube 
fragments remain attached to the coral, or a corrosion trace can be 
detected on the coral even after the worm and and the tube have 
disappeared. This association occurs in the Philippines and in Indonesia. 
Worms obtained during cruise MUSORSTOM 2 in the Philippines have been 
compared by T. MIURA with Lumbrineis flabellicola from the NE Atlantic and 
Japan and have been found to be the same species (L. flabellicola) in these 
widely distant areas (T. MIURA, in litt., 1989).   The following species 
have been found to be the coral partner of this association, specimens 
still bearing the worm (WO), or still having empty tubes fragments attached 
(ET), or showing only a characteristic erosion trace left over (TR):

- Caryophyllia (C.) transversalis: DEKI stn 32 (WO).

- Caryophyllia (C.) grayi: MUSORSTOM-2 stn 29 (ET); MUSORSTOM-3 stn 131 
(ET, TR).

- Caryophyllia (A.) spinigera: MUSORSTOM-2 stn 63 (WO).

- Caryophyllia (A.) spinicarens: "Albatross" stn 5256 (ET), stn 5418 (TR),
stn 5535 (ET), stn 5536 (TR), stn 5538 (TR); MUSORSTOM-1 stn 20 (TR?); 
MUSORSTOM-2 stn 63 (ET).

- Conotrochus brunneus: MUSORSTOM-3 stn 92 (ET, TR).

- Flabellum (F.) patens: KARUBAR stn 31 (TR).

- Flabellum (F.) lamellulosum: MUSORSTOM 1 stn 27 (TR?), stn 31 (TR);
MUSORSTOM-2 stn 63 (ET); MUSORSTOM-3 stn 86 (WO), stn 92 (WO, TR).

- Flabellum (F.) sp.: MUSORSTOM 3 stn. 133 (ET).

- Rhizotrochus typus: MUSORSTOM-3 stn 131 (ET).

- Balanophyllia sp.: MUSORSTOM-2 stn 33 (WO).

- Dendrophylliidae, colonial: MUSORSTOM 2 stn 33 (WO).


Eunicid polychaete causing deformation of the coral colony.
   Some colonies of Madrepora oculata from Indonesia ("Albatross" stn 5645;
KARUBAR stn 56) show deformations similar to those found in colonies of 
Madrepora oculata, Lophelia pertusa, and Solenosmilia variabilis from the 
northeastern Atlantic, in which the parchment-like tube of Eunice norvegica 
(Linnaeus, 1767) is overgrown by the coral coenosteum and incorporated into 
thecolony (Zibrowius, 1980). We have no information whether the 
deformations of Indonesian M. oculata is caused by the same Eunice species. 
Similar deformations characterize all colonies of Madrepora arbuscula and 
of Madrepora minutiseptum studied here. Even though no overgrown soft tube 
has been formally identified in this material and no worm been extracted, 
it is presumed that the causing organism is an eunicid polychaete. 
Overgrown parchment-like Eunice tubes have also been found in some colonies 
of Neohelia cf. porcellana.


Acrothoracic cirriped crustacean boring the coral skeleton.
   Acrothoracic cirripeds may bore the skeleton of live corals and when 
penetrating through the wall cause the polyp to deposit additional wall 
material that is intended to seal off the borer. The orifice of the burrow 
may migrate upward along the growing coral (GRYGIER & NEWMAN, 1985). 
Orifice motility is particularly marked in a specimen of Javania 
lamprotichum (MUSORSTOM-2 stn 53) bored by 4 large acrothoracids. Other 
species bored alive are Tethocyathus virgatus (MUSORSTOM-3 stn 108), 
Balanophyllia crassiseptum (KARUBAR stn 50) and Balanophyllia sp. 
(MUSORSTOM-1 stn. 61; MUSORSTOM-2 stn 32; MUSORSTOM-3 stn 131).


Ascothoracid crustacean inducing a skeleton gall.
   The most common aspect of this association has been described in detail 
by ZIBROWIUS & GRYGIER (1985) who already reported some examples the 
Philippines and Indonesia: "internal galls" are recognizable as a spongy 
proliferation of the columella that covers the underlying cavity occupied 
by the parasite. The list from the Philippines and Indonesia now includes 
Deltocyathoides orientalis ("Albatross" stn 5178, 5313, 5314, 5315, 5317, 
5403, 5569); Flabellum (F.) lamellulosum (MUSORSTOM-2 stn 83); 
Balanophyllia carinata (Siboga stn 240), Balanophyllia sp. (MUSORSTOM-2 stn 
34); Balanophyllia sp. (MUSORSTOM-3 stn 131); Dendrophyllia sp. cf. D. 
ijimai(MUSORSTOM-2 stn 33). A newly recognized expression (GRYGIER & 
CAIRNS, 1996) of ascothoracidan gall induction are abnormal hypertrophied 
corallites in Madrepora oculata ("Albatross" stn 5529; DEKI stn 50; "Hakuho 
Maru" stn KH-73-2-44-2; KARUBAR stn. 9, 13, 19, 77). 	


Cryptochirid crab inhabiting a crypt in the coral skeleton.    
   Cryptochirid (formerly hapalocarcinid) crabs are obligate symbionts of 
scleractinians. The crypts (or in some cases cage-like galls) they inhabit 
are due to dissolution of the coral skeleton and to induced modified coral 
growth (ZIBROWIUS, 1982; ZIBROWIUS & GILI, 1990). Previous to these authors 
cryptochirids had always been considered as typical of the reef fauna, but 
new deep-water species continue to be discovered. Zibrovia galea Kropp & 
Manning, 1995, has thus been found on Phyllangia papuensis from the 
Philippines (MUSORSTOM-2 stn 47) and from Madagascar.

---------------------------------------------------- 
  Helmut ZIBROWIUS
  (Centre d'Oceanologie de Marseille)
  Station Marine d'Endoume
  Rue Batterie des Lions
  13007 Marseille / France
  E-MAIL:  hzibrowi at com.univ-mrs.fr
  TEL: within France  0491041624  from abroad +33 491041624
  FAX: within France  0491041635  from abroad +33 491041635  
  ---------------------------------------------------------

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