Polychaeta in a coral paper
hzibrowi at com.univ-mrs.fr
Wed Feb 11 10:57:37 EST 1998
Cairns S.D., Zibrowius H., 1997. Cnidaria Anthozoa: azooxanthellate
Scleractinia from the Philippine and Indonesian regions. In: Crosnier A.,
Bouchet P. (ed.), Resultats des campagnes MUSORSTOM, volume 16. Memoires
du Museum national d'histoire naturelle, 172: 27-243.
This contains a chapter mentioning polychaetes in symbiosis with corals.
Here the text of this chapter (p. 58-59):
Several types of specialized coral symbionts (other than simple
epibionts) have been found associated with various members of the species-
rich fauna of the Philippines and Indonesia studied here.
Lumbrinerid polychaete eroding the coral skeleton.
This association has been described in detail by ZIBROWIUS et al. (1975)
on the basis of material from the northeastern Atlantic and the
southwestern Indian Ocean (South Africa), with additional records from
Madagascar, the China Sea and Japan. The coral skeleton eroding polychaete
Lumbrineris flabelliocola (Fage, 1936) inhabits a soft tube exteriorly
attached to the host and causes a superficial to deep erosion of the coral
skeleton. The worm itself is easily lost by the mechanical constraints of
dredging and the subsequent manipulations, but frequently empty tube
fragments remain attached to the coral, or a corrosion trace can be
detected on the coral even after the worm and and the tube have
disappeared. This association occurs in the Philippines and in Indonesia.
Worms obtained during cruise MUSORSTOM 2 in the Philippines have been
compared by T. MIURA with Lumbrineis flabellicola from the NE Atlantic and
Japan and have been found to be the same species (L. flabellicola) in these
widely distant areas (T. MIURA, in litt., 1989). The following species
have been found to be the coral partner of this association, specimens
still bearing the worm (WO), or still having empty tubes fragments attached
(ET), or showing only a characteristic erosion trace left over (TR):
- Caryophyllia (C.) transversalis: DEKI stn 32 (WO).
- Caryophyllia (C.) grayi: MUSORSTOM-2 stn 29 (ET); MUSORSTOM-3 stn 131
- Caryophyllia (A.) spinigera: MUSORSTOM-2 stn 63 (WO).
- Caryophyllia (A.) spinicarens: "Albatross" stn 5256 (ET), stn 5418 (TR),
stn 5535 (ET), stn 5536 (TR), stn 5538 (TR); MUSORSTOM-1 stn 20 (TR?);
MUSORSTOM-2 stn 63 (ET).
- Conotrochus brunneus: MUSORSTOM-3 stn 92 (ET, TR).
- Flabellum (F.) patens: KARUBAR stn 31 (TR).
- Flabellum (F.) lamellulosum: MUSORSTOM 1 stn 27 (TR?), stn 31 (TR);
MUSORSTOM-2 stn 63 (ET); MUSORSTOM-3 stn 86 (WO), stn 92 (WO, TR).
- Flabellum (F.) sp.: MUSORSTOM 3 stn. 133 (ET).
- Rhizotrochus typus: MUSORSTOM-3 stn 131 (ET).
- Balanophyllia sp.: MUSORSTOM-2 stn 33 (WO).
- Dendrophylliidae, colonial: MUSORSTOM 2 stn 33 (WO).
Eunicid polychaete causing deformation of the coral colony.
Some colonies of Madrepora oculata from Indonesia ("Albatross" stn 5645;
KARUBAR stn 56) show deformations similar to those found in colonies of
Madrepora oculata, Lophelia pertusa, and Solenosmilia variabilis from the
northeastern Atlantic, in which the parchment-like tube of Eunice norvegica
(Linnaeus, 1767) is overgrown by the coral coenosteum and incorporated into
thecolony (Zibrowius, 1980). We have no information whether the
deformations of Indonesian M. oculata is caused by the same Eunice species.
Similar deformations characterize all colonies of Madrepora arbuscula and
of Madrepora minutiseptum studied here. Even though no overgrown soft tube
has been formally identified in this material and no worm been extracted,
it is presumed that the causing organism is an eunicid polychaete.
Overgrown parchment-like Eunice tubes have also been found in some colonies
of Neohelia cf. porcellana.
Acrothoracic cirriped crustacean boring the coral skeleton.
Acrothoracic cirripeds may bore the skeleton of live corals and when
penetrating through the wall cause the polyp to deposit additional wall
material that is intended to seal off the borer. The orifice of the burrow
may migrate upward along the growing coral (GRYGIER & NEWMAN, 1985).
Orifice motility is particularly marked in a specimen of Javania
lamprotichum (MUSORSTOM-2 stn 53) bored by 4 large acrothoracids. Other
species bored alive are Tethocyathus virgatus (MUSORSTOM-3 stn 108),
Balanophyllia crassiseptum (KARUBAR stn 50) and Balanophyllia sp.
(MUSORSTOM-1 stn. 61; MUSORSTOM-2 stn 32; MUSORSTOM-3 stn 131).
Ascothoracid crustacean inducing a skeleton gall.
The most common aspect of this association has been described in detail
by ZIBROWIUS & GRYGIER (1985) who already reported some examples the
Philippines and Indonesia: "internal galls" are recognizable as a spongy
proliferation of the columella that covers the underlying cavity occupied
by the parasite. The list from the Philippines and Indonesia now includes
Deltocyathoides orientalis ("Albatross" stn 5178, 5313, 5314, 5315, 5317,
5403, 5569); Flabellum (F.) lamellulosum (MUSORSTOM-2 stn 83);
Balanophyllia carinata (Siboga stn 240), Balanophyllia sp. (MUSORSTOM-2 stn
34); Balanophyllia sp. (MUSORSTOM-3 stn 131); Dendrophyllia sp. cf. D.
ijimai(MUSORSTOM-2 stn 33). A newly recognized expression (GRYGIER &
CAIRNS, 1996) of ascothoracidan gall induction are abnormal hypertrophied
corallites in Madrepora oculata ("Albatross" stn 5529; DEKI stn 50; "Hakuho
Maru" stn KH-73-2-44-2; KARUBAR stn. 9, 13, 19, 77).
Cryptochirid crab inhabiting a crypt in the coral skeleton.
Cryptochirid (formerly hapalocarcinid) crabs are obligate symbionts of
scleractinians. The crypts (or in some cases cage-like galls) they inhabit
are due to dissolution of the coral skeleton and to induced modified coral
growth (ZIBROWIUS, 1982; ZIBROWIUS & GILI, 1990). Previous to these authors
cryptochirids had always been considered as typical of the reef fauna, but
new deep-water species continue to be discovered. Zibrovia galea Kropp &
Manning, 1995, has thus been found on Phyllangia papuensis from the
Philippines (MUSORSTOM-2 stn 47) and from Madagascar.
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