[Annelida] Internal fertilization in Terebellidae

Salvador Herrando-Perez via annelida%40net.bio.net (by salvador.herrando-perez from adelaide.edu.au)
Fri Apr 24 18:12:02 EST 2009

Hi Maua, please check if the following references are of any use to you. I
have ignored the Dani´s papers on the topic since you may have them all.
Regards, Salva

Molecular analysis indicates gene flow among populations of Paralvinella
pandorae Desbruyeres and Laubier 1986 (Alvinellidae, Terebellida), a
polychaete annelid endemic to hydrothermal vents of the northeast
PacificAuthor(s): Knowles JD, Wenink E, Schult N, Tunnicliffe V, McHugh D
3-4    Pages: 216-222    Published: SEP-DEC 2005   Abstract: The polychaete
annelid Paralvinella pandorae Desbruyeres and Laubier 1986 is endemic to
hydrothermal vents in the northeast Pacific, and is found at almost all
vents sites along the 500-km long Juan de Fuca ridge (JdF) system. The sperm
morphology of P. pandorae indicates that fertilization occurs internally or
in the worm's tube, and the maximum observed oocyte size of 215 mu m
suggests that a dispersive larval phase is short or non-existent. Size
frequency analyses of populations of P. pandorae suggest continuous or
semi-continuous recruitment of juveniles. Given Our limited knowledge of the
species' life history, we predicted that populations of P. pandorae would
exhibit a decline in genetic similarity with increasing distance among
populations along the JdE While our attempts to use amplified fragment
length polymorphisms to test this prediction were not successful, our
analysis of cytochrome oxidase I gene sequences provided insights into the
phylogeography of the species. For 31 individuals from five sites along the
JdF there is little sequence variation among individuals and no
phylogeographic pattern among haplotypes from populations separated by
distances of Lip to 210 km. These results indicate that gene flow occurs
among all sites in the analyses, i.e. despite the very limited dispersal
potential inferred from life history characteristics of this worm, there is
no evidence for isolation-by-distance across the geographical scale of the
study. Demersal larvae dispersed by near-bottom currents might explain the
gene flow among sites, as well as the establishment of populations of P.
pandorae at new vents within a year.

Oogenesis characteristics in the hydrothermal vent polychaete Alvinella
pompejanaAuthor(s): Pradillon F, Gaill F Source: INVERTEBRATE REPRODUCTION &
DEVELOPMENT    Volume: 43    Issue: 3    Pages: 223-235    Published: JUL
2003   Times Cited: 2     References: 35     Citation Map     Abstract: The
morphology of the female genital tract and mechanisms of oogenesis were
investigated through light and transmission electron microscopy in the vent
polychaete Alvinella pompejana. We showed that the genital pore exhibits
different morphologies in males and females and can be used for sex
identification. The female genital tract consists of two oviducts that
contain mature oocytes and spermathecae, which may contain a few
unfertilised oocytes, and simultaneously spermatozoa. Ultrastructural
analysis of both coelomic and genital tract oocytes showed that
vitellogenesis is mostly achieved in the coelomic cavity, apparently without
helper cells, and involves autosynthetic mechanisms of yolk production. Such
a mechanism suggests that egg growth is slow. It is commonly admitted that
hydrothermal environments are unpredictable and highly variable, and thus,
may favour species that are able to produce eggs rapidly facing
environmental changes. As Alvinella pompejana does not seem to follow such a
reproductive pattern, we hypothesised that the reproductive process may be
considered as a two-step process where only the second one would be directly
influenced by the environment. First, coelomic vitellogenesis would be a
relatively slow process, regulated physiologically independently of abrupt
environmental changes. In the second step, mature eggs would be selected and
stored for further spawning and fertilisation, at any time triggered by
environmental cues or biological signal such as sperm transfer.
DESBRUYERES D Source: MARINE BIOLOGY    Volume: 122    Issue: 4    Pages:
637-648    Published: JUN 1995   Times Cited: 39     References: 57
Citation Map     Abstract: Paralvinella grasslei is a polychaetous annelid
living in the harsh, unstable and heterogeneous environmental conditions
found at deep-sea hydrothermal vent sites in the eastern Pacific. The aim of
this work was to examine the possible influence of the reproductive biology
of P. grasslei on the structure of its populations. Maximum observed oocyte
size inside the oviduct is 275 mu m, and fecundity is relatively low.
Examination of gametes and young specimens suggested a direct benthic
development for this species. The population structure of P. grasslei at 13
degrees N/EPR (EPR = East Pacific Rise) revealed a discontinuous recruitment
which seems to be synchronized within vent sites and fields. The data also
suggested the occurrence of discrete breeding periods. P. grasslei probably
reproduces several times a year, with an apparent periodicity. Tidal signals
could be a possible cue for the coordination of the reproductive cycle. The
life-history of P. grasslei is discussed in light of the reproductive
biology of other terebellomorph polychaetes, and seems to be well adapted
for colonizing the unstable environment of hot vents. Two main hypotheses
can explain the dissemination processes of this species along axial oceanic
ridges. The influence of near-bottom currents occurring along the central
''graben'' of the East Pacific Rise can be considered to account for part of
the transport of larvae and juveniles, but the observations of polychaete
erpochaetes on the test of hydrothermal bythograeid crabs and evidence that
crab migrations occur between vents also support the possibility of zoochory
for the dissemination of alvinellid polychaetes.
Source: OPHELIA    Volume: 39    Issue: 3    Pages: 225-238    Published:
AUG 1994   Abstract: The ultrastructure of the spermatozoa and some stages
of spermiogenesis in Ramex californiensis Hartman, 1944 and Nicolea
zostericola (Orsted, 1844) is described. Both species brood direct
developing larvae, N. zostericola outside the tube in a jelly mass, and R.
californiensis inside the tube in a cocoon. In both species, spermatids were
seen in large groups of synchronously developing cells. Each spermatid was
connected via a cytoplasmic bridge to a central cytophore. The acrosome
initially developed at the posterior end of the spermatid near the
centrioles. It then migrated to the anterior end of the sperm at the tip of
the nucleus; in N. zostericola the migration was much later than in R.
californiensis. No microtubular activity was involved in spermiogenesis. The
mature sperm nuclei of R. californiensis and N. zostericola were basically
cylindrical and elongate, measuring 9 mum and 10 mum in length,
respectively. In both species the acrosome was bullet-shaped, although in N.
zostericola the subacrosomal space was proportionally much larger, and there
were two regions of differing electron density. There was no sperm midpiece
in either species. Instead the mitochondria lay in grooves along the
posterior region of the nucleus; 2 mitochondria in R. californiensis sperm
and 4 mitochondria in N. zostericola. The anchoring apparatus for the sperm
of each species consisted of both the proximal and distal centrioles, and a
complex satellite apparatus arising from the distal centriole. The
morphology of the sperm is compared with other polychaetes; functional
aspects and systematic implications are discussed. The close similarity of
the sperm between N. zostericola and R. californiensis does suggest a
similar fertilization mechanism is used by the two species. Until a
phylogenetic hypothesis for the Terebellidae is developed the evolutionary
change in sperm morphology and functional correlates with other factors in
reproduction cannot be determined.
Issue: 2    Pages: 153-167    Published: OCT 1993   Abstract: The
reproduction and development of four species of terebellid polychaetes from
the west coast of North America were studied and compared with several other
terebellid species to reveal the covariation of life history traits in the
group, and assess any limitations on terebellid life history evolution that
may be imposed by ancestry or body design. The four species in the present
study span the range of reproductive and developmental modes known for the
family Terebellidae. Eupolymnia crescentis and Neoamphitrite robusta are
both free spawners that reproduce during discrete 3-month breeding periods.
In E. crescentis, oogenesis takes from 5 to 8 months and spawning occurs
from July to September, maximum oocyte diameter is 210 mum, and fecundity
reaches approximately 128,500 during a single breeding period. The E.
crescentis larva develops near the bottom for about 7 days before settling
as a five-setiger juvenile. Neoamphitrite robusta reproduces from April to
July after a 12-month oogenic cycle; oocytes in this species measure up to
180 mum, and fecundity reaches approximately 830,000. The two brooders in
the study, Ramex californiensis and Thelepus crispus, brood their larvae in
the maternal tube. T. crispus reproduces continuously for at least 6 months,
and has up to 51,500 larvae in a single brood. The oocytes in this species
(400 mum) give rise to larvae that are brooded to the one-setiger stage and
then emerge to undergo a one-day planktonic period before the larvae settle
and become juveniles at eight setigers. Ramex californiensis reproduces
continuously year round; larvae are brooded in cocoons that are laid
sequentially in the tube, with up to 44 larvae in a single cocoon.
Development from the 4 1 0 mum oocytes is direct, and juveniles have 11
setigers. Unlike E. crescentis and N. robusta, in which oogenesis is
synchronized within individuals to produce a peak of large oocytes during
the discrete spawning period, R. californiensis and T. crispus females have
a wide range of oocyte sizes throughout the year. 
Correlation analysis and analysis of variance of reproductive and
developmental traits of these and several other terebellid species revealed
some expected trends. For example, egg size varies according to the mode of
reproduction (free spawning, extratubular brooding, or intratubular
brooding), and is also correlated with juvenile size. However, egg size does
not predict fecundity in terebellids when body size is held constant, and
brooding is not restricted to small-bodied species. Indeed, the largest and
smallest species in the study brood their larvae intratubularly, suggesting
that allometric constraints may not be important in determining mode of
reproduction in these polychaetes. The Terebellidae is a diverse family
found in all marine habitats, yet all known terebellid larvae are
non-feeding; this contrasts with the occurrence of both planktotrophy and
lecithotrophy in other polychaete families, and leads to the proposal that
larval development in terebellids has been constrained during the evolution
of the lineage. The results of this study demonstrate that generalizations
regarding complex relationships among life history traits are often
inappropriate. The need for more comparative studies of marine invertebrate
reproduction and development, and the integration of phylogenetic analyses
into the study of life history evolution in marine invertebrates is
Source: BULLETIN OF MARINE SCIENCE    Volume: 48    Issue: 2    Pages:
448-460    Published: MAR 1991   Abstract: Ramex californiensis is a small
intertidal terebellid polychaete that lives in rocky habitats on the
northern California coast. The species is abundant under colonies of
encrusting tunicates in the low intertidal zone on rocks protected from the
surf. The tubes are formed of coarse mucoid secretions covered with sand,
shell, and algal fragments. Large elongated, white eggs ranging from 270 to
330-mu-m (XBAR = 292-mu-m) are deposited by females in capsules within the
tubes. Up to 16 eggs or embryos have been observed in a single capsule. One,
two, or three capsules may be found in a single tube. When multiple capsules
are present, the embryos contained in separate capsules are always at
different stages of development, indicating sequential fertilizations and
egg deposition. Pair formation between males and females was not observed.
Development is direct and occurs entirely within the capsules. The earliest
larval stages are covered with cilia and bear a pair of red, granular eyes.
The anterior and posterior ends elongate and the cilia become restricted to
an anterior band. The oral structures develop early, with the
differentiation of a ciliated vestibule and development of a medial tentacle
on the anterior end of the prostomium. The tentacle assists movement within
the capsule during their early development. Two additional tentacles appear
lateral to the original medial tentacle and develop each a ciliated groove.
The latest encapsulated stages have three grooved tentacles, 10-11 segments
(eight with capillary notosetae; none with uncini), and a fully developed
digestive tract containing remants of yolk. Upon release from the capsule,
an additional pair of tentacles develops and uncini first appear on setiger
3. Juveniles were maintained on cultures of unicellular algae covering the
bottoms of the culture dishes. The worms grazed upon these algae by sweeping
their tentacles over the bottom where they pick up the cells and transport
them to the vestibule. Juveniles secrete thin mucous tubes.
Author(s): SMITH RI
Source: AMERICAN ZOOLOGIST   Volume: 29   Issue: 4   Pages: A117-A117
Published: 1989

MARINE BIOLOGY AND ECOLOGY    Volume: 96    Issue: 3    Pages: 287-302
Published: MAY 1986   

Salvador Herrando-Pérez
> School of Earth and Environmental Science, Mawson Building 
> University of Adelaide, South Australia 5005, Australia
> Phone: +61 8 8303 5254
> Fax: +61 8 8303 4347
> Email: salvador.herrando-perez from adelaide.edu.au
> https://www.adelaide.edu.au/directory/salvador.herrando-perez

-----Original Message-----
From: annelida-bounces from oat.bio.indiana.edu
[mailto:annelida-bounces from oat.bio.indiana.edu] On Behalf Of ???? ???????
Sent: 24 April 2009 23:19
To: Annelida from magpie.bio.indiana.edu
Subject: [Annelida] Internal fertilization in Terebellidae

Dear collegues,

Did anybody anywhere met any information on casas of internal fertilization
in Terebellidae.
I would be greatly appreciated for any kind of information.

Best regards,

Masha Plyuscheva, PhD
Recearch Fellow
Center for Advanced Studies (CEAB, CSIC)
Acc Cala St. Francesc 14
17300 Blanes (Girona)
Catalunia (Spain)
Ph: + 34 972 336 101
Fax: + 34 972 337 806

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