Teresa Binstock binstoct at essex.UCHSC.edu
Mon Feb 12 05:36:49 EST 1996

In humans, the X and Y chromsomomes have genes for S4 ribosomal subunits. 
These genes are homologous but not identical. The most complete symbol 
for each gene is rpS4x and rpS4y. This means that human males translate 
mRNA via {one of S4x and one of S4y} whereas human females translate mRNA 
via {two of S4x}. 
      This sexual dimorphism of S4x and S4y exists independently of gonadal 
and adrenal hormones. Yet, given all the mRNA processed by humans in 
their lifetimes and, relatedly, the nearly infinite number of ribosomes 
used in those translations, the probability seems high that at least a 
few specific mRNA have sexually dimorphic translation in humans. In other 
words, at least some genes would lead to differing proteins due to being 
processed by S4x or by S4y. Should this be the case, then at least some 
biological sex differences would be independent of gonadal hormones, a 
finding that would help lay to rest the seemingly outmoded notion of the 
"bipotential embryo". 
      I would like to receive suggestions regarding how to experimentally 
determine translation differences between S4x and S4y, and would 
appreciate sincere replies being sent me directly, and posted to 
newsgroup only if you so wish. Thank you.

Teresa C. Binstock, Researcher
Developmental & Behavioral Neuroanatomy
Denver CO USA
			Teresa.Binstock at uchsc.edu


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