biofilms in water piping

Bill Keevil bill.keevil at
Wed Jan 21 07:24:53 EST 1998

In addition to Pseudomonas spp. we usually look for Sphingomonas,
(fomerly Pseudomonas), Alcaligenes, Acinetobacter, Flavobacterium, 

Remember to use a low nutrient medium e.g. R2A recovery agar 
(Reasoner & Geldreich) to enhance recovery of nutrient stressed aquatic 
species.  If water is chlorinated add thiosulphate before plating out 
and consider use of chlorine stress recovery agar (Gordon McFeters), 
particularly useful where coliforms might be expected.

You might also consider looking for Actinomycetes/fungi and 
"anaerobes" such as sulphate reducing bacteria (indicative of heavy 
biofouling and low oxygen niches)

Bill Keevil

Dr C. William Keevil
Porton Down
Wilts SP4 0JG,  UK
Tel:  44 (0) 1980 612310   Fax:  44 (0) 1980 612731

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