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LEGIONELLA

Bill Keevil bill.keevil at btinternet.com
Sat Nov 24 06:13:19 EST 2001


Legionellosis is a group of respiratory diseases caused by legionellae. The
Legionella genus includes 43 valid species, with Legionella like amoebal
pathogens also being proposed (Adeleke, 2001). About half of the Legionella
spp. which are linked to human illness, including L. anisa, L. bozemanii, L.
cininatiensis, L. dumoffii, L. feelei, L. lansingensis and L. parisiensis.
L. pneumophila, the principal aetiological agent of Legionnaires' disease,
causes 4%-20% of cases of community-acquired pneumonia and has been ranked
as the second or third most frequent cause of pneumonia requiring
hospitalisation. However, because of difficulties isolating this bacterium
from infected individuals and of treatments that eradicate it before its
presence can be verified, this figure may underestimate the pathogen's
prevalence.  The L. pneumophila species includes 16 serogroups, all of which
are associated with disease, but serogroup 1 appears to be the most
important causing 50% of all L. pneumophila infections.  Although most
infections are believed to arise from inhalation of aerosolised water
droplets, L. longbeachae has caused Legionnaires' disease in Australia,
Japan and the USA through inhalation of potting soil [Steele, 1990; Koide,
1999].

Legionnaires disease is an acute fulminating pneumonia with a low attack
rate but causing approximately 12% fatalities [Fraser, 1977; Brenner, 1979]
; Pontiac fever, a mild, non-pneumonic fever with a high attack rate which
was first recognised to have occurred at the County Health Department,
Pontiac in 1968 [Glick, 1978]; and Lochgoilhead fever, a mild non-pneumonic,
atypical infection causing breathlessness and a long fever which was caused
by L. micdadei  at the Lochgoilhead leisure complex in Scotland in 1987
[Goldberg, 1989].

Adeleke at al.  Legionella drozanskii sp. nov., Legionella rowbothamii sp.
nov. and Legionella fallonii sp. nov.: three unusual new Legionella species.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 51: 1151-60. (2001).

Steele TW, Moore CV, Sangster N. Distribution of Legionella  longbeachae
serogroup 1 and other Legionella in potting soils in  Australia. Appl
Environ Microbiol 56:2984--8. (1990).

Koide M, Saito A, Okazaki M, et al. Isolation of Legionella  longbeachae
serogroup 1 from potting soils in Japan. Clin Infect Dis 29:943--4. (1999).

Fraser, D.W. et al. Legionnaires' disease: description of an epidemic of
pneumonia. N Engl J Med 297, 1189-97. (1977).

Brenner, D.J., Steigerwalt, A.G. & McDade, J.E. Classification of the
Legionnaires' disease bacterium: Legionella pneumophila, genus novum,
species nova, of the family Legionellaceae, familia nova. Ann Intern Med 90,
656-8. (1979).

Glick, T.H. et al. Pontiac fever. An epidemic of unknown etiology in a
health department: I. Clinical and epidemiologic aspects. Am J Epidemiol
107, 149-60. (1978).

Goldberg, D.J. et al. Lochgoilhead fever: outbreak of non-pneumonic
legionellosis due to Legionella micdadei. Lancet 1, 316-8. (1989).


Bill Keevil


Prof C. William Keevil  PhD FIBiol FAAM
Environmental Healthcare Unit
School of Biological Sciences
Biomedical Sciences Building
University of Southampton
Bassett Crescent East
Southampton SO16 7PX
UK

Office tel: 44 (0) 2380 594726
Lab tel:                        594257
     fax:                594459


cwk at soton.ac.uk
www.sobs.soton.ac.uk/ehu


-----Original Message-----
From: owner-biofilms at hgmp.mrc.ac.uk
[mailto:owner-biofilms at hgmp.mrc.ac.uk]On Behalf Of "Lenny Sanders"
Sent: 24 November 2001 00:37
To: biofilms at net.bio.net
Subject: LEGIONELLA




hey everyone, i would like to know of any other conditions the genus
Legionella causes, apart from legionnaires' disease and pontiac fever.  even
manifestations by the little players, not just L. pneumophila, and L.
micdadei.



thanks in advance.




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