(none)

Dennis R. Rasmussen PIPIAPAN at VMS3.MACC.WISC.EDU
Sat Feb 23 12:17:00 EST 1991


 
An Initial Summary of Work Accomplished and Projected Goals
 
NSF Research Experience for Undergraduates Grant: Social
Ecology of stumptail macaques (Macaca arctoides) on
Tanaxpillo island, Catemaco, Mexico
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The following is a an email version of a progress report on an
NSF-REU grant entitled "An initial summary of work accomplished
and projected goals: NSF research experience for undergraduates
grant: Social ecology of stumptail macaques (_Macaca_ _arctoides_)
on Tanaxpillo island, Catemaco, Mexico".  We developed several
innovative, and, I believe, important educational and scientific
aspects of the NSF-REU.  For example, students continued to work
with me and an advisor at their home campus during the year
following the research conducted on social ecology in Catemaco,
Mexico.  This innovation would not have been possible without the
continuous use of email for communication between my students,
their advisors and myself. The program was also truely multi-
national and multi-university in scope, with students from Canada,
the USA, and Mexico participating.
 
If after, reading the report, you feel this is an important
precident and model to be further developed, I would appreciate it
if you would write letters to NSF, your congressmen, senators and
other policy makers on the importance of the further development
of this research/educational model.
 
At NSF write to:
 
Deputy Director
National Science Foundation
Washington, D. C.  20550
 
Via email you can write to:
 
fstollni at nsf.gov.BitNet
 
A hardcopy edition with all supplementary information of nearly
100 pages in length may be obtained by writing to:
 
by Dennis R. Rasmussen, Ph.D.
 
Animal Behavior Research Institute
314 South Randall Street
Madison, Wisconsin 53715, USA
Phone (608)-255-4367
Computer Mail: pipiapan at vms.macc.wisc.edu (Internet)
 
 
Please enclose $10.00 to cover costs of photocopying and mailing.
 
 
I attach a copy of the _Clara_ _Clarion_ # 7, a newsletter I write to
keep students and friends informed of our research and educational
efforts.
 
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ABSTRACT: This is a brief progress report and a statement of
projected goals for an innovative multi-university educational and
research effort conducted through the auspices of the National
Science Foundation. The National Science Foundation awarded two
Research Experience for Undergraduates Grants in Primate Social
Ecology to the research effort (1988 BBS-8804141; 1989 DIR-
8900880). The first grant was for $44,679 and the second for
$39,975. The research, data collection, and initial training
occurred during the summers of 1988 and 1989 in Catemaco, Mexico.
This phase of the project was conducted as an integral part of
School for Field Study Courses. The 18 students supported by the
NSF-REU grant were among the 75 members of the 30 day classes. The
focus of the research was a group of stumptail macaques housed on
a 6750 m} island in Lake Catemaco. Upon completion of the initial
phase of the project the 18 students returned to their home
colleges and universities where they continued to work on their
projects under the guidance of an advisor on their campus and Dr.
Rasmussen at the Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center. This
effort has resulted in the production of excellent undergraduate
research papers, numerous honors for the students, presentations
of results at national and international meetings, publications,
and papers submitted for publication. The data collection phase of
the research project was successfully completed in 1989. Several
students continue to work on the project and another round of
scientific presentations are planned for this coming summer. An
outline for a book reporting the results of the project is being
circulated among publishers. Upon publication, the book will
demonstrate the successful outcome of a cooperative
research/educational effort by faculty and undergraduates.
 
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Contents
 
 
Introduction
  Research objectives
  Directed student projects
  International cooperation
 
Methods
  Subjects and study site
  Observation methods, conditions and schedule
  Data collection and analysis: computational hardware and software
 
Results
  Continuation of student research after course completion
  The email student review
  Student presentations
  Student awards
  Comments on course work, research and student presentations
  Publications
  Continued involvement of students
 
References
 
Appendices
  Appendix 1 Comments on the project by scientists, faculty and students
  Appendix 2 Dr. Rasmussen's cv
 
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Introduction
 
    The educational objectives of the primate social ecology
classes and the NSF Research Experience for Undergraduates
training program are to thoroughly train the students in "state of
the art" field study methods in primate social ecology, provide
course materials and lectures that give theoretical and empirical
depth to these methods, and to have students conduct a directed
research project that trains them in all phases of scientific
inquiry. The program is founded on the idea that an essential
component to learning to conduct scientific projects is to
actually assist in these projects. The following stages of
scientific inquiry are actively engaged in by every student: (1)
question formulation and choice of appropriate methods, (2)
collection of accurate data, (3) analyses of data, (4) written and
verbal descriptions of the data and the methods used for analyses,
(5) presentation of results to local, national, and international
scholarly assemblies and (6) submission of written reports for
publication. Our long term educational objective is to motivate
and inspire American students to enter the field sciences as a
career objective. We feel we have met and are meeting these
objectives with an exceptional program.
    The focus of the research is a troop of stumptail macaques
housed on Tanaxpillo Island in Catemaco Lake, Mexico. The troop
was established in 1974 with the aid of the National Science
Foundation and it is maintained by the University of Veracruz.
    Two 4 week courses were taught during the summers of 1988 and
1989: the first courses were conducted from June 15 to July 14 and
the second courses from July 21 to August 19. There were
approximately 15 students in each course. Although not funded by
the National Science Foundation, a three week course was taught
during December 1988 and January 1989. Three NSF-REU scholars
returned to Mexico and worked with Dr. Rasmussen during these
courses and 2 of these worked as TAs in the courses. The data
collection phase of the project was brought to a successful
conclusion in 1989. The analyses of the data from the project and
the continued participation of students in the project will
continue for several years.
 
Research objectives
 
    Our research is focused on how patterns of social interactions
between stumptail macaques are related to the distribution,
abundance and use of environmental factors. The colony of
stumptail macaques is provisioned and the macaques' natural
habitat is in Asia. Studies of the proximate social ecology of
such groups contribute to our knowledge of the influence of
proximate environmental factors on patterns of social organization
(Rasmussen & Rasmussen, 1979; Rasmussen, 1981; 1988; Fa, 1984;
1986). The analyses have practical applications in the management
of nonhuman primates in semi-natural settings since they indicate
how resource distribution may be manipulated to regulate patterns
of social interactions and, ultimately the differential
reproduction of individuals.
    There were several interconnected foci of the social
ecological studies we have conducted. These foci provide the
students with ample opportunities to develop research projects
that appeal to their own areas of research interest. Areas of
research include: (1) The influence of the presence of the
observers on behavior. (2) Relationships between the distribution
of resources, such as food, shelter, paths, and mates, and the
manner in which individual animals use those areas. (3)
Relationships between aspects of social organization, such as
agonistic rank, age, sex, and reproductive status, and patterns of
individuals' use of space. (4) Relationships between differential
use of resources and patterns of social interactions. And (5)
fine-grained analyses of patterns of social interactions.
    The first area of research, the influence of the presence of
observers on the macaques, is a focus of the research primarily
because we plan to statistically control for any systematic
changes in the behavior of the subjects across the study that were
correlated with the duration of time we have observed the macaques
(e.g. Rasmussen, 1979, 1983, 1990). This statistical control
permits partial removal of the influence of the presence of the
observers on the behavior of the subjects.
 
Directed student projects
 
    Student projects were directed so as to contribute to one of
the foci of the social ecological study. All students contributed
to the collection of a comprehensive focal samples on individual
activities, resource use, affiliative, sexual and agonistic
behavior. In this way the students cooperated in the production of
a much larger data base than any student could possibly have
collected by him/herself. In addition, the students were directed
to develop projects that would not overlap across courses, thus
the NSF students, other ambitious students, and faculty members
who continue to analyze and write up their data will conduct their
analyses on the entire data base.
    After the first week of field and course work, the students
discussed potential topics of directed research with the faculty.
They were then guided to the appropriate literature and subset of
data from the data base. The students then wrote a 5 to 15 page
proposal in which previous literature was reviewed and in which
the tentative format of data analyses were specified. The students
also gave an oral project proposal to their class which often
turned into a fairly lively discussion of the topic.
    The analyses conducted by the students during the classes were
not on the full data base: The students analyzed only a few days
of the data they collected so they could start analyses before the
last days of their course. If we waited until all the data were
collected only 3 or 4 days would be available to the students for
the analyses. By starting the analyses earlier, students had more
time to describe the relationships in their data. In addition,
when the entire data base is used, personal computers take much
longer to process the information: as much as 24 hours of
continuous processing is necessary for the calculation of the rate
of a single variable for each subject. For this reason, analyses
conducted on a fraction of the entire data base has heuristic
value in a field course of only 30 days in length.
 
International cooperation
 
    Successful conduct of field studies on nonhuman primates by
American scientists requires international cooperation: there are
no naturally occurring populations of nonhuman primates found
within the 50 states. The necessity of working, cooperating and
conducting research in a cultural environment different from our
own is therefore a necessary component of the education and
training of a young primatologist. Our research was conducted in a
positive and receptive foreign environment. We could not have
asked for a better environment in which our students could learn
what it is like to live and work in a different culture. We have
been fortunate to have a positive and cooperative relationship
with the scientists, students, and workers from the University of
Veracruz. In addition we have had Mexican students take the
courses and therefore be an integral part of the day to day
research effort. The University of Veracruz provided a concrete
(literally) example of their hospitality by building our lecture
hall, kitchen, computer room and sanitary facilities in Pipiapan.
We will present the results of some of our research to the 1991
annual meeting of the American Society of Primatologists held in
Veracruz, Mexico. We view this as an excellent opportunity to help
repay the receptivity of the Mexicans to our research efforts by
giving public presentations that emphasize the high quality
research and training environment that they provided to our
project. Students who present papers at the meeting will also have
the experience of presenting a scientific paper outside of the
United States. The students in the program are therefore getting
the necessary education in how to accomplish research within a
culture different than their own.
 
Methods
 
Subjects and Study Site
 
    The troop of stumptail macaques has varied in size between 35
and 39 individuals. The troop lives on two volcanic islands which
together comprise Tanaxpillo Island (the most southerly island in
Fig. 1 of Estrada & Estrada, 1977). The two islands are connected
by a submerged rock bridge of about 15 m in length with a maximum
depth below water of about .5 m. Adult troop members could wade
between the two islands whereas swimming was necessary for some of
the juveniles. Members of the troop would occasionally also swim
the 30 m channel to Tanaxpi island, a larger island to the north
west on which peripheral adult males spend most of their time
(Fig. 1, Estrada & Estrada 1977). Most troop members may not have
found this island attractive since it was inhabited by people and
dogs.
    The natural plant and animal food on the islands is enhanced
with approximately 11 liters of commercial pellet food and .05
cubic meters of fruits and vegetables every day between 1000 and
1400 hours. The vegetation is a depauperate subsample of natural
vegetation in the region due its use for food and as a substrate,
and to the thin soil covering the volcanic rock. Trees and cliffs
located on several portions of the island's perimeter provide
shade. Observations commenced at the end of the dry season and
continued through the peak of the annual rains (Estrada & Estrada,
1981). Vegetation grew and flourished during this period.
 
Observation methods, conditions and schedule
 
    The macaques were accustomed to the presence of observers and
caretakers and therefore allowed us to approach within 1-5 m when
we initiated the study. Because of the large number of personnel
we were able to collect a representative sample on the behavior of
focal subjects throughout the day. Teams of 3 to 6 observers
collected the data. Observation teams were composed of
undergraduates and a faculty member. Definitions and sampling
methods were chosen so they were compatible with the large number
of variables assessed and could be used reliably by observation
teams.
    One or two teams of observers collected data during each of
three shifts on the island: 0600 to 1000 hours, 1000 hours to 1400
hours and 1400 to 1800 hours. Data were collected 7 days per week.
Data were not kept for analysis until all observers had learned to
identify subjects and had been tested on variable definitions,
codes and data collection techniques.
    The computerized data collection and analysis system was
developed and tested during the preceding year at the Wisconsin
Regional Primate Research Center. Data were collected on Tandy 102
lap top computers. The data were uploaded and edited daily on
personal computers powered by a portable generator at Pipiapan, a
field station maintained by the University of Veracruz. The data
were then formed into SPSS/PC+ system files. We could therefore
monitor data quality and quantity while in the field and conduct
initial analyses.
    Members of observation teams had defined roles: The principal
observer took primary responsibility for keeping the focal subject
in sight at all times and called observations entered by a data
recorder into a lap top computer. Assistants watched the focal
subject from different locations and verified calls made by the
principal observer. Data collection roles were rotated to prevent
observer fatigue. Faculty members participated in all roles and
monitored data accuracy.
    Video tapes of the observation methods and the troop may be
obtained from library of the University of Wisconsin Regional
Primate Research Center (Guss, Rasmussen, 1988; Rasmussen et al.,
1990). The data base has now grown to over 600 hours of
quantitative data.
 
Data collection and analysis: computational hardware and software
 
     We set-up a mini 'computer center' at Pipiapan, about an hour
walk and boat ride away from Tanaxpillio island in a small
building (approximately 10 X 20 feet) built for us by the
University of Veracruz. Our computer center had the hardware
listed in Table I and the software listed in Table II. Text files
could be transferred between all 12 computers so the computer time
consuming effort of writing papers could be shunted between
computers by the faculty and students. This ability allowed us to
most effectively utilize the AT computers for data processing.
 
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Table I: Computer hardware used at the "Pipiapan Computer Center"
Number Description
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2 ---- Northgate 12 megahertz AT-style computers with 60 meg. hard disks
1 ---- AT&T  6300 computer
1 ---- Panasonic daisy-wheel printer
3 ---- Victor 9000 personal computers
5 ---- Tandy 102 computers
1 ---- Kaypro II personal computer
2 ---- Coleman Powermate 2500 watt generator for power
2 ---- Surge protectors
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Table II: Computer software used at the "Pipiapan Computer Center"
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SPSS/PC+ 3.0 - Statistical Package for the Social Sciences
Word Perfect - Word Processor
Peachtree ---- Word Processor
PC-Write ----- Word Processor
PC-Calc ------ Spread sheet for PCs
Comx --------- PC Communication Program
Obs5 --------- Tandy data collection Program
Crosstalk ---- Victor Communication Program
22dsk -------- CPM to MSDOS conversion for above
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    While our little computer center would not be impressive in a
university it was rather extensive and impressive in the
rainforest setting of Pipiapan. It added a lot to the students'
education at the field site.
    Perhaps the most immediate advantage of the computerized
collection of the data is the deletion of the exceedingly time
consuming task of transferring and recoding data from paper forms
to machine-readable images. The process of decoding and then key
punching data collected may take two or three times the amount of
time it actually takes to collect data. As a result of the
collection of data on the Tandy lap tops and then editing them and
uploading them to PCs, we could actually begin data analyses in
the field and bring home a completely edited and computerized data
base. This logistic advantage permits the students to focus on
data analyses and on their interpretation rather than on the
secretarial chore of entering and decoding the data; a chore that
may daunt even the most ambitious.
    For the NSF students the computers are essential, they allow
the instruction in the data reduction methods and statistical
analyses that are used in their projects.
 
Results
 
Continuation of student research after course completion
 
    The NSF-REU students continued in the analysis and write up of
their data during the academic year following the course work and
data collection in Catemaco. As an essential component to
selection for the NSF-REU award, all students were required to
obtain a prior written and verbal agreement with an advisor at
their home college or university to work with them and Dr.
Rasmussen during the following academic year. During the academic
year, the students were expected to enroll in independent study or
guided research classes and obtain course credit for their work on
the analyses and write up of their data.
    Dr. Rasmussen volunteered to work with any course member
during the following academic year in exactly the same way as with
the NSF-REU students. Such students were required to fulfill the
same requirements as the NSF-REU students. This offer made it
possible for any student to have the same opportunity to continue
with the project like the NSF-REU students. Some of the students
who elected to continue on in this capacity have excelled.
    The use of computerized mail (Internet, Bitnet, and UUCP) made
it possible to orchestrate the research projects of students
throughout the United States. This rapid and inexpensive means of
communication between campuses permitted Dr. Rasmussen to send
references, review notes, send instructions on use of computers,
and review manuscripts. Many of the students therefore learned use
of an important and developing means of scientific communication,
a means of communication now in place permitting national and
international discourse amongst scientists.
    The Wisconsin Regional Primate Center also generously paid for
frequent long distance phone calls. At times Dr. Rasmussen would
do identical data analyses to those being conducted by a student
in another state. Several hours were sometimes spent on the
telephone with a student working on the same set of analyses with
personal computers and comparing the results of each step of the
analysis over the phone. While this process was tedious, it proved
an essential step in teaching use of SPSS/PC+ to some of the
students. Results were also be double checked.
 
The email student review
 
     Professor Harnad at Princeton University has developed an
experimental project with the support of the American
Psychological Association in which scientists write up their
results or a brief article and circulate this to other scientists
via computer mail (Harnad, 1990). I have participated in the
project and I have also emulated this model for the NSF-REU
students. Several students agreed to review manuscripts of other
students sent to them via email. This email review has several
distinct advantages: Reading others' manuscripts sharpens the
awareness of the importance of exact expository writing. For
example, while the student may find his or her description of a
complex data analysis adequate, it may be ambiguous to another not
so familiar with the methods. The email review enables students to
compare their progress with those of others in the program.
Finally, the student whose paper is criticized can get comments
and criticisms within a day or two of the submission of the paper
for criticism.
     A major portion of our NSF Research Experience for
Undergraduates Training program in primate social ecology is to
have students learn how to write up and submit articles for review
in scientific journals. Therefore I handle the student review of
manuscripts as would an editor. The manuscripts students send to
me are then sent to "anonymous" reviewers (the fellow students who
participate in this electronic mail review).
 
Student presentations
 
    The public presentation of results is an integral and
essential part of the education of a scientist. All students were
therefore encouraged to present their analyses to their campus and
to regional, national and international scientific meetings. The
majority of the students gave presentations to their home
campuses. Since the data collection phase of the research project
was completed during the summer of 1989, I was able to give full
attention to the student presentations in 1990. Weeks are spent
with each student developing presentation outlines, using computer
graphics programs to develop illustrations for the presentations,
and matching the presentations to slides of data collection and
macaque behavior. At the meetings the students repeatedly rehearse
their presentations in front of each other and give "dress
rehearsals" in the room in which the actual presentations take
place. A list of the presentations of the results of data analyses
from Catemaco so far given at scientific meetings may be found in
the Clara Clarion #7.
 
    During the coming year another round of presentations are
planned at several national and international level meetings. This
years' annual meeting of the American Society of Primatologists
will be held in Veracruz Mexico. My students and I will present
papers in a symposium entitled "Social Ecology of Stumptail
Macaques: A Mexican-American Cooperative Research Experience for
Undergraduates Project supported by NSF."  We are particularly
pleased to present this symposium since it will allow us to
document the exceptional degree of cooperation provided to us by
our Mexican colleagues in helping us to conduct the NSF-REU
grants.
 
Student awards
 
    Several students have received prestigious awards for the
conduct of their research in Catemaco. We hope this trend will be
continued.
 
1989 Tina Kalkstein received the Sigma Xi Grand Prize and First
Prize in Anthropology at New York University for research
conducted on stumptail macaques. Tina took the first course in
1988 and has continued to work on data from the project to the
present. She is one of the students who was not one of the NSF-REU
recipients.
 
1990 Kevin Crooks received an American College Graduate
Scholarship.
 
1990 Sandy Fernandez received the Kluge Scholarship at Columbia
University for continuation of her research on stumptails. Sandy
was also a research fellow at the 1990 summer research institute
in psychobiology at the University of North Carolina at
Greensboro.
 
1990 Juliet Nachman received the Sigma Xi Award for outstanding
undergraduate research conducted on stumptail macaques.
 
Comments on course work, research and student presentations
 
  Appendix 1 contains comments of NSF-REU students, course members
who were not NSF-REU students, and their advisors on the research
and educational aspects of the program. The comments of students
who have taken the course but not participated in the program are
also contained in this appendix. I have also started to solicit
the comments of scientists who hear the presentation of students
at scientific meetings so as to document the positive comments I
have generally received from my colleagues on the students'
efforts. These comments are included in Appendix 1.
 
Publications
 
  The following is a list of publications that have so far
resulted from the project:
 
Rasmussen, D. R. 1988. Studies of food enhanced primate groups:
  current and potential areas of contribution to primate social
  ecology. In: Fa, J. E., & Southwick, C. H. (eds.), Ecology and
  behaviour of food-enhanced primate groups. Alan R. Liss, New
  York, pp. 313-346.
Jolly, D. W. & Rasmussen D. R. (1990). Differences in competitive
  rates when feeding on natural or provisioned food and when not
  feeding in the Catemaco troop of stumptail macaques. American
  Journal of Primatology, 20, 202.
Rasmussen, D. R., Biggs, R. & R. Gorena. (1990). Increased area of
  daily range is associated with more use of natural foods and
  decreased affiliative interactions within the Catemaco troop of
  Stumptail Macaques. American Journal of Primatology, 20, 224.
Riordan E. & Rasmussen D. (1990). A quantitative measure of
  peripherality and its association with age and sex in the
  Catemaco group of Stumptail Macaques. American Journal of
  Primatology, 20, 227.
Rasmussen, D. R. 1990. Observer effects in field studies. Primate
  Library Report: Audio Visual Acquisitions, 10, 1-3.
 
    Most of these publications are abstracts of talks given at
meetings. Several full length journal articles are currently being
developed. One full length manuscript is in review and copies of
this manuscript are available upon request:
 
Rasmussen, D. R., Biggs, R. & Gorena, R.. Dynamic trend analyses
  of daily patterns of range use of the catemaco troop of
  stumptail macaques (Macaca arctoides): Relationships to weather,
  individuals' use of food and affiliative interactions.
 
    We hope to eventually gather the student projects and the
report of the study as a whole between the covers of an edited
book. We have tentative arrangements for our Mexican colleagues to
contribute chapters on the history and background of the colony
and the plans for its future development.
 
Continued involvement of students
 
    After the academic year following the NSF-REU the scholars
have no commitment to continue with the project and either do I.
However it is my pleasure to report that many of the NSF-REU
scholars are now voluntarily entering into their 3rd year of work
on the project and several course members who did not receive NSF-
REU support are also continuing to work on the project. The
students' work is entirely voluntary. They, like I, are fascinated
by the results of the data analyses and are exceptionally
dedicated to the project. Dedication like this is a hallmark of a
good scientist. Several of these students are now contributing to
American science and it seems very likely that many will continue
to make substantial contributions throughout their careers.
    Some of the students who have worked with me on this project
have entered graduate school. For example, Tina Kalkstein is doing
graduate studies in the Department of Anthropology of the
University of New York. Michael Platt is doing graduate studies in
the Department of Anthropology of the University of Pennsylvania.
Kevin Crooks is in the Environmental Studies program at the
University of California at Davis. Lisa Kelly is in Medical School
at Tulane University. As these and other students continue to work
with me they will mature from undergraduates, to graduates, to
postdoctoral students, and to medical doctors. As the research is
published they will therefore become more capable of making
substantial analytic contributions and their careers will be more
directly benefitted from the publications. This is the
maturational promise of the NSF-REU scholarships. The program was
set up to motivate and recruit young Americans to become
scientists. As a partial result of completion of their efforts,
the students in the project are becoming those scientists.
 
Achknowlegements. This entire report is an acknowedgement to the
exceptional dedication and effort made by scientists, faculty,
students and members of the public to this educational effort. I
thank Professor Alison Richard and Mrs. Mandy Farrington for their
comments on an earlier draft of this report.
 
References
 
Estrada, A., & Estrada, R. (1977). Patterns of predation in a
  free-ranging troop of stumptail macaques (Macaca arctoides):
  Relations to the Ecology II. Primates, 18, 633-646.
 
Estrada, A., & Estrada, R. (1981). Reproductive seasonality in a
  free-ranging colony of stumptail macaques (Macaca mulatta): A
  five year report. Primates, 22, 503-511.
 
Fa, J. E. (ed.) (1984). The barbary macaque - a case study in
  conservation. Plenum, New York.
 
Fa, J. E. (1986). Use of time and resources by provisioned troops
  of monkeys: social behaviour, time and energy in the Barbary
  Macaque (Macaca sylvanus L.) at Gibraltar. Contributions to
  Primatology, 23, 1-377.
 
Harnad, S. (1990). Scholarly skywriting and the prepublication
  continuum of scientific inquiry. Psychological Science, 1, 342-
  344.
 
Rasmussen, D. R. 1979. Correlates of patterns of range use of a
  troop of yellow baboons (Papio cynocephalus). I. Sleeping sites,
  impregnable females, births, and male emigrations and
  immigrations. Animal Behaviour, 27, 1O98-1112.
 
Rasmussen, D. R. 1981. Communities of baboon troops (Papio
  cynocephalus) in Mikumi National Park, Tanzania: A preliminary
  report. (Folia Primatologica), 36, 232-242.
 
Rasmussen, D. R. 1988. Studies of food enhanced primate groups:
  current and potential areas of contribution to primate social
  ecology. In: Fa, J. E., & Southwick, C. H. (eds.), Ecology and
  behaviour of food-enhanced primate groups. Alan R. Liss, New
  York, pp. 313-346.
 
Rasmussen, D. R. 1990. Observer effects in field studies. Primate
  Library Report: Audio Visual Acquisitions, 10, 1-3.
 
Rasmussen, D. R., & Rasmussen, K. L. 1979. Social ecology of adult
  males in a confined troop of Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata).
  Animal Behaviour, 27, 434-445.
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                         THE CLARA CLARION
                           email edition
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    Newsletter of Social Ecological Studies at Clara and Catemaco Number 7
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 
                           February 1991
                Dennis R. Rasmussen, Ph.D.  Editor
                ANIMAL BEHAVIOR RESEARCH INSTITUTE
                     314 South Randall Street
                   Madison, Wisconsin 53715, USA
  Phone (608)-255-4367, Computer Mail: pipiapan at vms.macc.wisc.edu (Internet)
 
 
Redundancy!: This issue of the Clarion repeats most of the
information that was provided in the issues of Clarion #5 and #6.
I'm repeating this information since many of you have moved and
therefore may have not received these earlier editions.  In
addition, the mailing list has increased in size so there may be
some new readers who did not receive the information provided in
the earlier editions.
 
Promulgation of Data: Our research emphasis has now been primarily
focused on the phase of presentation of results to national and
international scientific meetings and the publication of results.
With the help of students and co-workers we have over 500 hours of
data from Clara, Panama and over 600 hours of data from Catemaco,
Mexico. All the data from Panama have now been entered into
computerized records. Because we collected the data from Mexico on
laptop computers, all the data from there are in computerized
format. By devoting my full attention to the data already
collected I can now attend and give papers at the annual meetings
which were always in conflict with my field courses since 1985.
     What we accomplished in Panama and Mexico goes far beyond
field courses in primatology.  When the work is published I feel
we may set a goal towards which undergraduates may aspire.  We may
also set a new standard for cooperative and serious conduct of
science by undergraduates and scientists.
     Those of you who are still studying in the sciences are
welcome to join the analysis, presentation and writing team now
working with me.  Write to me or give me a call and we can talk it
over.  In order to work with me the following will be required:
(1) a campus advisor who will work with you and me on the analyses
and write ups, (2) arrangement for the receipt of course credit
from your college or university for your work, and (3) a serious
commitment to work with me for at least 1 full academic year.
     Those of you who do not wish to work on the data analyses and
publications but who would like to help can do a lot for our
project by contributing articles to local newspapers and student
newspapers.  Here is a brief summary on my view on why this
popular support is useful:  In our ideal of scientific excellence,
it would be great if the scientist could only focus on the
perfection of data and analyses. To a certain extent this is
possible in areas with exceptionally defined boundaries, say, for
example, current research in DNA. Here the scientist is provided
with all the tools etc. and his/her major goal is the
accomplishment of stated research objectives.
     In field research however, we are definitely on the
intellectual equivalent of a four-wheel drive only road.  There
are exceptionally limited funds available and, as yet, there are
very few positions within the scientific establishment that allow
us to focus only on precision and excellence.  At times we are
therefore forced to make our own roads. We are now at the stage of
writing up, analyzing and publishing our data and we must generate
popular support for our efforts. This popular support will also be
instrumental in convincing publishers in the market for the
eventual book reporting our efforts.  Indeed, it may help to
create that market.
     This view is certainly not mine and mine alone.  For example,
the current president of the Animal Behavior Society writes
(Newsletter, Animal Behavior Society, Vol 35 No. 4) that one can
help generate support for research in animal behavior by "Work
with the news service on campus, if you have one, or with a local
newspaper reporter, to develop stories on animal behavior and
related topics for the local news media.  It is much better to
work through a campus news service because you have control over
the final product. You cannot expect to see the copy of a
newspaper writer prior to publication."
     This view is also found in the actions of some of the more
visible folks who have worked with nonhuman primates such as Jane
Goodall, George Schaller, and Dian Fossey.  While some may view
their popular works as means simply to gain popularity, there is a
definite economic and support story here:  These authors have
often written their books to gain the popular and economic support
necessary for the continuation of their research and all of these
3 have certainly put most if not all of their earnings back into
their research.  I too have plowed my money directly back into the
Mexico and Panama research projects.
     Since I view our efforts in both Panama and Mexico as
cooperative projects, your cooperation in the generation of the
positive support necessary is very appropriate.  By helping the
project, you also help yourself.  The more successful the
projects, and the greater their acceptance, the greater will be
the boost for your careers.  If you are interested in writing up a
description of the projects, I'll be glad to provide you with help
and examples.  The article can be made timely by noting the
planned presentation of the results of both research in Panama and
Mexico at scientific meetings this year (see below).  You should
of course, add personal notes, indicating your role in the
project, the positive benefits you have obtained and, undoubtedly,
a few human interest items. Those of you who worked in Mexico
might, for example, note the environmental clashes between having
computers and doing complex statistical analyses while camping in
tents and in a tropical rainforest.
 
Publication of the Catemaco Research in a Book: I am currently
negotiating for the publication of the results of the research in
Mexico in a book with chapters written by students, scientists at
the University of Veracruz, co-faculty members, and myself.  There
will also be a series of articles on the research conducted in
Panama.  This is a major effort and will take my full attention
for at least 2 years.
 
Presentations and Publications:  The following is a list of
presentations given in 1989 and 1990 and those planned for 1991.
In addition, I also provide a list of presentations that have now
been scheduled for 1991.  All of you have contributed a lot to
these projects, I feel a great deal of respect for the efforts
students and co-workers put into the projects in Panama, in Mexico
and at your home universities and colleges.  The talks are the
first step towards making public what all of you who have worked
on the projects already know: we put together amazing and hard
working groups of undergraduates and scientists and collected some
excellent data.  The talks will help pave the way toward
publications.
 
Bailey, H. & Rasmussen, D. R. 1989.  The relationship between
     allogrooming and patterns of range use in a group of free-
     ranging Panamanian tamarins (Saguinus geoffroyi).  Poster
     presented to the annual meeting of the American Society of
     Primatology.  Abstract: American Journal of Primatology, 18,
     132-133.
Rasmussen, D. R. 1989.  Social ecology and conservation of the
     Panamanian tamarin.  Anthroquest, 40, 12-15.
Rasmussen, D. R. 1989.  Invited Canadian lecture series March 4 to
     March 10, 1989.  University of Western Ontario:  Lecture
     Presented to the Wildlife Society: Social ecology of nonhuman
     primates. Lecture presented to the campus: The ecology and
     conservation of Panamanian tamarins.  Guelph University:
     Lecture presented to the student conservation group: Ecology
     and conservation of Panamanian tamarins.  McMaster
     University: Lecture presented to the student and faculty:
     Social ecology of Panamanian tamarins. University of Toronto-
     St. George: Lecture presented to the Department of Zoology:
     Social ecology of Panamanian tamarins.  University of
     Toronto-Scarborough Campus: Lecture presented to the faculty
     and students: The breeding biology and ecology of Panamanian
     tamarins.
Rasmussen, D. R. (1990).  Compromises between work and
     affiliation: daily ranges of the Catemaco troop of
     stumptailed macaques.  Wisconsin Regional Primate Research
     Center Seminar, March 9, 1990.
Gorena, R. L. & Rasmussen, D. R. (1990).  Feeding and range use in
     a stumptail macaque group. Southwestern Psychological
     Association Annual Convention 12-14 April 1990, Dallas Texas.
Rasmussen, D. R. & Biggs R. (1990).  Relationships between daily
     variation of range use and social interactions within semi-
     free ranging stumptail macaques (Macaca arctoides). Mid-
     Western Psychological Association Annual Meeting 3-5 May,
     Chicago.
Jolly, D. & Rasmussen, D. R. (1990). Competitive agonistic
     behavior in a semi-free ranging troop of stumptail macaques:
     A comparison of provisioned and natural foods. International
     Society for Research On Aggression, 16 June, Alberta, Canada.
Kalkstein, T.,Nash, A., & Rasmussen, D. R.  (1990).  Video film
     presentation: The Catemaco Troop of stumptail macaques and
     methods for the study of their social ecology. American
     Psychological Society Annual Meeting 7-10 June Dallas, Texas.
Rasmussen, D. R. & Riordan, E. C. (1990).  Assessment of the
     central-peripheral spatial structure of the Catemaco troop
     and its association with age and sex.   American
     Psychological Society Annual Meeting 7-10 June Dallas, Texas.
Gorena, R., Rasmussen, D. R. , & Biggs R. (1990).   Daily patterns
     of range use of the Catemaco troop of stumptail macaques:
     dynamics between use of social and food resources. American
     Psychological Society Annual Meeting 7-10 June Dallas, Texas.
Fernandez, S. & Rasmussen, D. R. (1990).  Characteristics of
     geographical locations where sexual activity occurs at high
     rates in the Catemaco troop of stumptail macaques: Visibility
     & intensity of use.  American Psychological Society Annual
     Meeting 7-10 June Dallas, Texas.
Fernandez, S.  & Rasmussen D. R. (1990).  Characteristics of
     locations with high rates of sexual activity in a semi-free
     ranging troop of stumptail macaques (Macaca arctoides):
     Visibility and intensity of use. Animal Behavior Society
     Annual Meeting 10-15 June Binghamton, New York.
Weekes, H. & Rasmussen, D. R. (1990).  Play, and its relationship
     to age and agonistic behavior in a population of stumptail
     macaques (Macaca arctoides).
Rasmussen, D. R. (1990).  Differences in affiliative and sexual
     behaviour between a reproductive and nonreproductive rhesus
     group: Tests of A Priori hypotheses of function. Animal
     Behavior Society Annual Meeting 10-15 June Binghamton, New
     York.
Jolly, D. W. &  Rasmussen D. R. (1990).  Differences in
     competitive rates when feeding on Natural or provisioned food
     and when not feeding in the Catemaco troop of stumptail
     macaques. American Society of Primatology 11-14 July Davis,
     California.
Rasmussen, D. R., Biggs, R. & R. Gorena. (1990).  Increased area
     of daily range is associated with more use of natural Foods
     and decreased affiliative interactions within the Catemaco
     troop of stumptail macaques. American Society of Primatology
     11-14 July Davis, California.
Riordan E. C. & Rasmussen D. R. (1990).  A quantitative measure of
     peripherality and its association with age and sex in the
     Catemaco group of stumptail macaques.  American Society of
     Primatology 11-14 July Davis, California.
Harewood D. & Rasmussen D. R. (1990). Concordance of status orders
     in the Catemaco troop of stumptail macaques. International
     Society for Comparative Psychology - Fifth Biennial
     Conference - Barbados  August 16-22, 1990.
Harewood D., Rasmussen D. R.  & L. Guss (1990). Conduct of a field
     course in primate social ecology and student assistance in
     the collection of quantitative data. International Society
     for Comparative Psychology - Fifth Biennial Conference -
     Barbados  August 16-22, 1990.
Gorena, R.L., James-Aldridge, V.G. & Rasmussen, D.R. (1991).
     Assessing spatial central-peripheral structure in a captive
     chimpanzee group. Poster presented to the 37th annual
     convention of the Southwestern Psychological Association, New
     Orleans, LA.
Rasmussen D. R. & Fernandez S. (1991). Social ecological contexts
     of sex: relationships between rates of sexual activity of
     stumptail macaques, visibility, and frequency of use of
     locations.  Paper accepted for presentation to the Fourteenth
     Annual Meeting American Society of Primatologists to be held
     in Veracruz, Mexico.
Crooks K.R. & Rasmussen D. R. (1991). Does affiliation enhance the
     fitness of the recipient?: indirect evidence from application
     of kin selection theory.  Paper accepted for presentation to
     the Fourteenth Annual Meeting American Society of
     Primatologists to be held in Veracruz, Mexico.
Farrington M., Riordan E., Churchill A., E. Kelly, R. Gorena,
     James-Aldridge, V. & Rasmussen D. R. (1991). Composition and
     measurement of the first circle: the central-peripheral
     structure of the catemaco troop of stumptail macaques.  Paper
     accepted for presentation to the Fourteenth Annual Meeting
     American Society of Primatologists to be held in Veracruz,
     Mexico.
Gorena R., Biggs, R. & Rasmussen, D. R. (1991). Does daily
     variation in the distribution of food have an immediate
     causal influence on daily patterns of range use?  Paper
     accepted for presentation to the Fourteenth Annual Meeting
     American Society of Primatologists to be held in Veracruz,
     Mexico.
Menendez D., Guss L., Nash, A. & Rasmussen D. R.  (1991).
     Logistics, set up and operation of a two year research
     project on the social ecology of stumptail macaques.  Paper
     accepted for presentation to the Fourteenth Annual Meeting
     American Society of Primatologists to be held in Veracruz,
     Mexico.
Ordonez, D., Guss, L., Nash, A. & Rasmussen D. R.  (1991).
     Observation, sampling, and data collection methods used in a
     two year research project on the social ecology of stumptail
     macaques.  Paper accepted for presentation to the Fourteenth
     Annual Meeting American Society of Primatologists to be held
     in Veracruz, Mexico.
Nachman, J., Riordan, E., Churchill, A., Kelly, E., Gorena, R.,
     James-Aldridge, V. & Rasmussen D. R.  (1991). Perks on
     membership in the first circle: use of food and position in
     the central-peripheral structure of the Catemaco troop of
     stumptail macaques.  Paper accepted for presentation to the
     Fourteenth Annual Meeting American Society of Primatologists
     to be held in Veracruz, Mexico.
Rasmussen, D. R. (1991). Social ecology of stumptail macaques: a
     Mexican-American cooperative nsf research experience for
     undergraduates project. Paper accepted for presentation to
     the Fourteenth Annual Meeting American Society of
     Primatologists to be held in Veracruz, Mexico.
Jolly, D. W. & Rasmussen, D. R.  (1991).  Use of islands for
     propagation of endangered species and ecotourism.  Paper
     accepted for presentation to the Fourteenth Annual Meeting
     American Society of Primatologists to be held in Veracruz,
     Mexico.
Rasmussen, D. R. (1991).  A brief history of the central-
     peripheral structure of primate groups. Proposed presentation
     in a seminar to be presented to the American Psychological
     Society entitled "The first circle: central-peripheral
     structure in captive groups of nonhuman primates.
     Participants: Rasmussen, D. R., James-Aldridge V., Nachman
     J., Farrington M., & Gorena R.
Rasmussen, D. R. (1991). PINDEX, A method for the quantitative
     description of peripherality. Proposed presentation in a
     seminar to be presented to the American Psychological Society
     entitled "The first circle: central-peripheral structure in
     captive groups of nonhuman primates." Participants:
     Rasmussen, D. R., James-Aldridge V., Nachman J., Farrington
     M., & Gorena R.
Farrington M. & Riordan E. (1991). Application to a group of
     stumptail macaques:correlation with age, sex and matrilineal
     relatedness. Proposed presentation in a seminar to be
     presented to the American Psychological Society entitled "The
     first circle: central-peripheral structure in captive groups
     of nonhuman primates." Participants: Rasmussen, D. R., James-
     Aldridge V., Nachman J., Farrington M., & Gorena R.
Nachman J. (1991). The central-peripheral structure and amount of
     time spent eating provisioned food.  Proposed presentation in
     a seminar to be presented to the American Psychological
     Society entitled "The first circle: central-peripheral
     structure in captive groups of nonhuman primates."
     Participants: Rasmussen, D. R., James-Aldridge V., Nachman
     J., Farrington M., & Gorena R.
James-Aldridge V. & Gorena R. (1991). The central-peripheral
     structure of a group of captive chimpanzees: description and
     evaluation of PINDEX.  Proposed presentation in a seminar to
     be presented to the American Psychological Society entitled
     "The first circle: central-peripheral structure in captive
     groups of nonhuman primates." Participants: Rasmussen, D. R.,
     James-Aldridge V., Nachman J., Farrington M., & Gorena R.
Rasmussen D. R. (1991). A monkey island in Panama: development for
     research, education and ecotourism. Proposed poster
     presentation for the American Psychological Society.
 
Manuscripts in Review for 1991
 
Rasmussen, D. R., Biggs, R. B., &  Gorena, R. (1990).  Dynamic
     trend analyses of daily patterns of range use of the Catemaco
     troop of stumptail macaques (Macaca arctoides): relationships
     to weather, individuals' use of food and affiliative
     interactions
 
The E-Mail Student Review: Several students have agreed to review
manuscripts I am writing with other students.  Hopefully a growing
number of students who are working with me will join into this
exchange.  I think you all found presentation of your research
proposals to the classes in Panama and Catemaco a very useful
learning experience.  This student review of manuscripts should
also be a useful learning experience.
     A major portion of our NSF Research Experience for
Undergraduates Training program in primate social ecology is to
have students learn how to write up and submit articles for review
in scientific journals.  The program is founded on the idea that
the best way to learn SCIENCE is to DO SCIENCE.  Therefore I am
handling the student review of manuscripts as would an editor.  I
send  manuscripts students send to me to "anonymous" reviewers
(your fellow students who have agreed to participate in this
electronic mail review).  Once I receive the manuscripts back with
their comments I summarize these and then send back copies of the
manuscript with the notes made on it by student reviewers.  The
reviewers will be anonymous in the sense that their names will
appear no where on the manuscript that they correct.
     I think this should be an excellent learning experience for
all participants.  The more students put into it, the better the
experience and the more they will benefit --- either as critics or
the person who receives that criticism.  However, it will be more
than a learning experience, it will give us a chance to polish up
our manuscripts before we actually do send them into a scientific
journal for review. See the section on CORRESPONDENCE below on how
to get in touch via computer mail.
 
Moving: I have returned to the development of the Animal Behavior
Research Unit.  Those of you who worked with me in 1986 or earlier
will remember I was working on the development of this independent
nonprofit research institute while in Panama.  The name comes from
the Animal Behavior Research Unit that I established in Tanzania,
East Africa in 1976 and which still continues.  I started the
Animal Behavior Research Unit while working on my Ph.D. thesis on
yellow baboons in Mikumi National Park.  Since 1986 I have been on
a National Institutes of Health Senior Research Service Award.
Scientists get only one of these per lifetime and the primate
center let me continue on for a year after the fellowship but that
period is now over.  There will be several steps required for the
development of the Animal Behavior Research Institute.  These
include gaining official nonprofit status and continuation of
publication of scientific articles with this institute.
 
Awards: Several students have received national recognition for
the work they have conducted with me in Panama and in Mexico.
These include: Michele Gilbert was a finalist in the 1988  Annual
Science Talent Search for the Westinghouse Scholarships for her
research on Panamanian tamarins. Tina Kalkstein received the Sigma
Xi Grand Prize and First Prize in Anthropology at New York
University in 1989 for her research on stumptails. Kevin Crooks
received a 1989-1990 Phi Kappa Phi Scholarship. Sandy Fernandez
received the prestigious Kluge Scholarship at Columbia University
for continuation of her research on stumptails with me this summer
     I've also managed to pick up a few awards for working with
you students and on the projects.  These include:  The School for
Field Studies Award for greatest faculty contribution to
development of the school (1987). Certificate of Honor as a
teacher named in the Annual Science Talent Search for the
Westinghouse Scholarships and Awards for Meritorious Work with
Science Students (1988). University of Western Ontario Student
Chapter of the Wildlife Society Conservation Award (1989)
 
Slide Exchange: I would like to encourage an exchange of slides
from Catemaco and Panama.  I've some excellent slides from each of
these sites.  I think a good way of working this would be to
exchange each other's 10 best slides.  Contact me and I'll send
you my 10 best in exchange for your 10 best.  If any of the slides
are published full credit will be given to the person who took the
picture (please print your name on slides).  Because I'm so busy
in the field I do not have that many slides of data collection and
observation of the monkeys.  I would therefore particularly value
these pictures. I would also like to have a few slides of Pierre
from 1988 during the last days of her life.  Hopefully with a few
of her female friends grooming her and near to her.
 
Questionnaire: If you took one of my courses in Panama or Mexico
and you've not yet filled out a questionnaire,  I'd appreciate it
if you could send me a letter briefly commenting on each of the
following points, this will help me to improve the quality of
future courses.  (1) Looking back at the course what were its best
and worst features? (2) Do you feel the course to have been an
important part of your undergraduate education?  Why?  (3) What
features would you most like to see in a course you might take in
the future?  (4) How do you feel I handled the course?  (5) How do
you feel the other faculty and TAs handled the course?  (6) What
is your impression on the contribution of SFS to the conduct of
the course. Thanks for the input, it is important!
 
American Society of Primatologists meeting in Veracruz! The
meeting of the American Society of Primatology will be held this
year in Veracruz!  For those of you who worked with me in Panama,
Veracruz is the city in which all course members for the Mexican
research project arrived.  It is a lovely gulf coast city and I
can't think of a nicer location to get together with past course
members. The meeting will be held from June 24-28, 1991 at the
Emporio Hotel. Several students and I plan on presenting analyses
of our data to the society (see above). Ernesto Rogriguez-Luna and
I have gotten together and will be giving a 3 hour symposium in
which several students, Ernesto and I will describe the Catemaco
troop of stumptail macaques and the results of the analyses of
data on the social ecology of the troop. The presence of those of
you who are not presenting talks will certainly be appreciated.
     Attendance of the meetings costs $35. If wish to attend,
write and ask for information and registration forms to the
following address: Dr. Reinhold J. Hutz, Chair Department of
Biological Sciences, University of Wisconsin, 3201 North Maryland
Avenue, Milwaukee, Wisconsin,  53201-0413
     I'd also appreciate it if you would let me know if you plan
to attend.  I know that cost will be a consideration for some of
you.  For those of you in this category, I suggest you look into
bus/train fares to Veracruz.  The travel could be an adventure.
If enough of you choose this option, you could, for the sake of
fun and safety, plan your trips so you travel together.
     Personally, I feel this is a superb opportunity to get
together for a reunion in Catemaco. Right now I really feel like
sitting at one of those large outdoor tables in the central plaza
of Veracruz, chatting with you, and being gently serenaded by one
of the groups of musicians. Let's make it happen! If you need
telephone numbers and addresses I may be able to help. Staying
there is relatively inexpensive and it will also be a great
educational experience.  If enough of you enterprising types get
together, then you might even be able to find less expensive
housing for a large group (again, there is safety in numbers so
less expensive lodging might become feasible).
     If one of you who plan to go would like to become a student
organizer for the travel and lodging, that would be great.  Write
to me and let me know so I can direct other students to you. If
you plan to attend, call the course members who you remember best
and urge them to attend too. I can supply telephone numbers if you
need them. For those of you who plan to fly, you might also get
together with a travel agent to see if you might qualify for
reduced rates (I've got a great agent here in Madison who always
seems to know the least expensive flights).
 
Bobb Gorena applies analytic methods from Catemaco to captive
chimps: I asked Bobb (2nd course, summer 1989) to write up his
current activities. Here is his description of his research
efforts: "One goal of scientific research is the testing and
refining of theories, hypotheses and statistical techniques by
using them on a variety of situations and subjects.  As some of us
already know, Dr. Dennis Rasmussen has developed a new statistical
index, called PINDEX, which quantifies the peripherality of
individuals of a group based on the individual's and group's
ranging patterns.  This index has already proven useful for the
analyses of data collected at Tanaxpillo, and, in keeping with
scientific tradition, Bobb Gorena (second summer session, 1989),
along with Dr. Rasmussen and Dr. Valerie James-Aldridge (Bobb's
undergrad advisor) have undertaken the task of testing Pindex's
ability to uncover the central-peripheral structure of a group of
captive chimpanzees.  This test will show PINDEX's sensitivity to
spatial structure of very small groups in restricted ranges, and
along with results obtained from Tanaxpillo, will demonstrate
Pindex's flexibility and usefulness in various types of settings.
Preliminary results suggest that PINDEX is in fact useful in
captive settings, and final results are slated for formal
presentation at the 1991 meetings of Southwest Psychological
Association, American Psychological Society and American Society
of Primatologists."
 
Juliet Nachman: receives prestigious Sigma Xi Award:  Juliet
Nachman (2nd course, 1989) received the Sigma Xi award for
outstanding undergraduate research at a banquet on Friday,
November 16, 1990.  Dr. Long at the University of Wisconsin,
Steven's Point, nominated Juliet.  Juliet is continuing with
analyses of the data from Catemaco.
 
Tina Kalkstein to present research to the American Society of
Physical Anthropologists: Tina Kalkstein (1st course, 1988) has
recently had a paper on her research in Catemaco accepted for
presentation to this year's meeting of the American Society of
Physical Anthropologists.
 
Graduate Programs in Animal Behavior: The fifth edition of the
Animal Behavior Society's directory "Graduate Programs in Animal
Behavior in the United States, Canada, and Mexico" is now
available.  Copies may be obtained for $8.00 from: Larry Williams,
Department of Comparative Medicine, University of South Alabama,
Mobile, Alabama 36688.  This is an essential guide for those of
you who wish to pursue a career in animal behavior. The guide
provides information on nearly every graduate program offering an
advanced degree in animal behavior and the faculty in those
programs.
 
Panamanian Friends: I have remained in touch with our Panamanian
friends and am pleased to report that all are well.  Professor
Nunez continues to work at the University of Panama and is
president of the important Foundation of National Parks. Raul
Concepcion is now married and is working in his father's
advertising business. Vielka Garcia has married Antonio and they
now have a daughter.  Antonio is working with ANCON, an
organization devoted to conservation in Panama. Julio Torres
managed to keep provisioning the tamarins on Isla Tigre until
summer the summer of 1989.  At least three were still alive at
that time. He is currently working as a preacher in David.
 
Starting Back up the Panama Research Project:  During this period
of time I will be working towards re-establishing the Clara field
site.  As those of you who have worked with me at Clara know, this
is a superb field site for the study of tamarins.  It is my hope
that Clara will eventually become an international scientific
research site for the study and conservation of Panamanian
tamarins.  I am currently arranging to return to Panama next
summer to start the process of developing Clara as a full time
research site and to check on the status of the tamarins we
released on Isla Tigre.  Our first step will be the development of
Isla Tigre for research, education and propagation of Panamanian
tamarins.   Professor Nunez is currently working to have research
on tamarins established as a university-wide project.  This will
mean that the research will be continued by the University of
Panama while I am back in the US.  Antonio will also be involved
with the project and will help bring in the interest of ANCON, an
organization devoted to conservation in Panama.
 
Progress Report on NSF-REU Available:  I've gone to considerable
effort to write a a nearly 100 page progress report on the NSF-REU
conducted in Mexico in 1988 and 1989.  Briefly, the report
consists of a write-up of accomplishments and goals, letters from
scientists and faculty who have attended presentations of the
research at international and national level scientific meetings,
responses on questionnaires answered by faculty advisors of
students and students.  If you would like to have a copy of the
report please mail me $7.00 to cover photocopy and mailing
expenses.
 
Change of Addresses:  If you want to keep receiving the Clarion
please remember please keep me up to date on your current address.
 




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