Herbicide workgroups

Dan Jacobson danj at welchdev.welch.jhu.edu
Thu Aug 12 07:56:47 EST 1993


In article <Martin.1.745067376 at gene.unp.ac.za> Martin at gene.unp.ac.za (Darren
Martin) writes:
>My address is Martin at gene.unp.ac.za,
>
>I am searching for information on workgroups dealing with herbicides
>I am specificall interested in getting in touch with a group which 
>deals with their breakdown in the environment.
>My specific research onterests include the isolation ,cloning and sequencing 
>of gens coding for enzymes responsible for the degradation of the 
>chloroacylanilide herbicides(I am presently work exclusively with 
>acetochlor).
>
>Any help whatsoever in directing me to interested parties would be much 
>appreciated
>

A gopher search for chloroacetanilide yields three projects funded by the 
USDA that may be of interest to you.  To do more detailed searches yourself
point your gopher client at merlot.welch.jhu.edu and select:

 -->  14. Searching For Biologists/

   -->  6.  Search for Researchers funded by the USDA <?>


Best of luck,

Dan Jacobson

danj at welchgate.welch.jhu.edu


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$$
9146581
PROJ NO: 3640-21220-009-00D   AGENCY: ARS   3640
PROJ TYPE: INHOUSE                    REGIONAL PROJ NO:
CGCA NO:
START: 921001  TERM: 950930   FY:
INVEST: GRONWALD  J W;
AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE
ST PAUL              MINNESOTA            55108

TITLE:
HERBICIDE MODE OF ACTION RESEARCH TO IMPROVE WEED CONTROL AND CROP
PRODUCTIVITY

OBJECTIVES:
Major objective: To increase fundamental knowledge of enzymes that regulate
herbicide mode of action and crop productivity. Specific objectives: (1)
determine the biochemical mechanism and mode of inheritance of herbicide
resistance in selected weed biotypes; (2) investigate the role which
herbicide-
detoxifying and target site enzymes play in regulating crop productivity and
stress tolerance.

APPROACH:
Determine the mechanism and mode of inheritance of diclofop-resistance in wild
oat biotypes and atrazine-resistance in velvetleaf. Purify and characterize
acetyl-CoA carboxylase from graminicide-susceptible and resistant species.
Investigate the role of acetyl-CoA carboxylase in regulating the oil content
of
soybeans. Purify and characterize glutathione S-transferase isozymes from
sorghum, corn,and wheat. Investigate the induction of glutathione S-transferase
isozymes by stress stimuli and herbicide safeners.


KEYWORDS:
WEEDS WEED-CONTROL HERBICIDES MODE-OF-ACTION CROP-PRODUCTIVITY HERBICIDE-
RESISTANCE ACETYL-COENZYME-A STRESS-TOLERANCE ENZYME-MECHANISMS SOYBEANS WHEAT
GLUTATHIONE-TRANSFERASES ATRAZINE MODE-OF-INHERITANCE DICLOFOP HERBICIDE-
RESISTANT-PLANTS

PROGRESS: 9210 TO 9212
ACETYL-COA CARBOXYLASE (ACCase), an enzyme that serves as the target site for
the graminicide herbicides, catalyzes the first committed step in fatty acid
biosynthesis in higher plants. ACCase activity was monitored in developing
seeds
of high-oil and low-oil soybean lines in the field. In both high-oil and
low-oil
lines, ACCase activity was maximal between 20 to 30 days after flowering (DAF)
and declined at 35 DAF. On a mg protein basis, ACCase activity was slighty
higher in the high-oil lines during the early stages of seed development.
Kinetic constants were determined for ACCase isolated from soybean seeds.
HERBICIDE SAFENERS protect sorghum against injury by chloroacetanilide
herbicides by inducing the synthesis of glutathione S-transferase (GST) isozymes
that detoxify the herbicides. Progress was made in characterizing two GST
isozymes found in herbicide-safener treated sorghum. Antibodies have been made
to one isozyme.

PUBLICATIONS: 9210 TO 9212
GRONWALD, J.W., EBERLEIN, C.V., BETTS, K.J., BAERG, R.J., EHLKE, N.J. and
WYSE,
D.L. 1992. Mechanisms of diclofop resistance in an Italian ryegrass (Lolium
multiflorum Lam) biotype. Pestic. Biochem. Physiol. 44:126-139. GRONWALD, J.W.,
PLAISANCE, K.L. and WYSE D.L. 1992. Isolation and characterization of
glutathione S-transferases in nontreated ... sorghum shoots.204th Am. Chem.
Soc.
Nat. Mtg., Washington, DC. Abstr. #50. EGLI, M.A., LUTZ, S.M., GENGENBACH,
B.G.,
GRONWALD, J.W., SOMERS, D.A. and WYSE,D.L. 1992. Cloning and expression of
maize
acetyl-CoA carboxylase. Agron. Abstr.p. 189.

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$$
9093639
PROJ NO: MAS00585             AGENCY: CSRS  MAS
PROJ TYPE: HATCH                      REGIONAL PROJ NO: NE   00115
CGCA NO:
START: 871001  TERM: 920930   FY: 1992
INVEST: CLARK  J M;
ENTOMOLOGY
UNIV OF MASSACHUSETTS
AMHERST              MASSACHUSETTS        01003

TITLE:
THE BIOCHEMISTRY AND FATE OF PESTICIDES IN AGRICULTURAL USE

OBJECTIVES:
Determine the pathways and mechanisms involved in pesticide metabolism with
emphasis on pyrethroid insecticides and assess the implications for pesticide
resistance and other toxicological impacts. Develop analytical methods for
pesticides and their metabolites, with emphasis on the development and
validation of immunoassay procedures. Determine post-application environmental
distribution patterns for pesticides and other metabolites with a focus on
surface and ground waters.

APPROACH:
The past practice in NE-115 of applying the diverse and complementary
expertise
and resources of the contributing projects to the solution of regional
problems
will be continued in this proposed project to address the problems of
pesticide
resistance as well as surface and ground water contamination by pesticides.
Whereas the main effort will be to coordinate research efforts of several
laboratories in a single problem, it will also be appropriate to apply the
expertise of one or a few contributing projects to problems of regional
impact,
particularly in cases where other contributing projects lack the resources
necessary to approach such problems.


KEYWORDS:
METABOLISM PESTICIDES PESTICIDE-RELATED-RESEARCH TOXICOLOGY ENVIRONMENTAL-IMPACT
RESIDUE-ANALYSIS PESTICIDE-RESIDUES METABOLIC-PATHWAYS MECHANISM-OF-ACTION
PESTICIDE-METABOLISM GROUNDWATER PESTICIDE-RESISTANCE PESTICIDE-APPLICATION
IMMUNOASSAY METABOLITES WATER-CONTAMINATION WATER-POLLUTION

PROGRESS: 9201 TO 9202
The biochemical mechanisms of three genetically-characterized and isogenic
strains of Colorado potato beetle resistant to abamectin, azinphosmethyl and
permethrin, res.
pectively, have been determined. Resistance to abamectin is due
principally to elevated oxidative metabolism based on increased levels of
monooxygenases and possibly to a sequestration carboxylesterase.
Azinphosmethyl
resistance is due principally to an altered acetylcholinesterase which is
synergized by a reduced penetration factor and elevated oxidative O-
demethylation reaction of azinphosmethyl. Permethrin resistance is due to a
site
insensitivity associated with the nervous system and an elevated level of a
premethrin carboxylesterase. A rapid analysis of chloroacetanilide herbicides
in
water was developed. The effects of spray adjuvants on off-site airborne and
deposited parathion residues from cranberry bogs during treatment by aerial and
chemigation was assessed.

PUBLICATIONS: 9201 TO 9202
GUO-LEI, F. MARION, J.R., and CLARK, J.M. 1992. Suppression of pyrethroid-
dependent neurotransmitter release from synaptsomes of knockdown-resistant
house
flies under pulsed-depolarization conditions during continuous perfusion.
Pestic. CLARK, J.M., ARGENTINE, J.A., LIN, H., and GAO, X.-Y. 1992.
"Mechanisms
of abamectin resistance in the Colorado potato beetle" in Molecular Mechanisms
of Insecticide Diversity Among Insects. Amer. Chem. Soc. Symposium Series.
505:247-263. ARGENTINE, J.A., CLARK, J.M. and LIN, H. 1992. Genetics and
biochemical mechanisms of abamectin resistance in two isogenic strains of
Colorado potato beetle. Pestic. Biochem. Physiol. 44:191-207.


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