Kelly carlson.82 at
Fri Oct 18 01:42:11 EST 1996

I am a student at the Ohio State University majoring in zoology and I have
some questions for a class that I wanted to ask about.  Any help with any
or all of them would be appreciated ASAP.  Thanks in advance!  Please
respond to my e-mail directly.  Thanks

Kelly Carlson
carlson.82 at

1.  The kidney indiscriminatly tosses an ultrafiltrate of plasma into the
urinary space and then expects the tubules to save the good stuff and just
enough water, and to eliminate the bad stuff.  What about this system makes
it effective even though it appears to be inefficient?

2.  Describe how Fick's law of diffusion applies to formation of urine in
the vertebrate kidney.

3.  Describe how the Nernst equation applies to the formation of urine in
the vertebrate kidney.

4.  How do marine mammals avoid accumulating excess salt in their body

5.  How might a cell that transports ions alter physiological capabilities
both on a short-term basis and on a long term basis?

6.  What is it about sodium ions and potassium ions that makes them ions of
primary importance in physiology?  For what reasons do you suppose these
ions took on such an importnat role to animal life through evolution?

7.  Describe a negative feedback system important to the formation of

8.  Why would you say water is the most important commodity on earth, or
why isn't it?

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