The memory of water...

Cornelius Krasel krasel at
Tue Sep 3 10:56:38 EST 1996

Sanjay Palnitkar (palnitka at wrote:
> I vaguely remember an article in 'Nature' a few years ago regarding 
> memory in water, specifically dealing with water able to retain 'memory' 
> of antibodies upon extensive dilutions wherein theoretically no antibody 
> molecule would be present.  There was a lot of hue and cry about this 
> article (One of the authors was Benveniste, not sure of the spelling) and 
> a lot of controversy!  I guess John Maddox had sent an investigative team 
> to check the findings.  Believe it was later found not to be true!!!

The original article is:

        author  = {E. Davenas and F. Beauvais and J. Amara and M. Oberbaum
                and B. Robinzon and A. Miadonna and A. Tedeschi and B.
                Pomeranz and P. Fortner and P. Belon and J. Sainte-Laudy
                and B. Poitevin and J. Benveniste},
        title   = {Human basophil degranulation triggered by very dilute
                antiserum against {IgE}.},
        journal = {Nature},
        volume  = 333,
        pages   = {816--818},
        year    = 1988

The report of the "investigative team" is:

        author  = {John Maddox and James Randi and Walter W. Stewart},
        title   = {``High-dilution'' experiments a delusion.},
        journal = {Nature},
        volume  = 334,
        pages   = {287--290},
        year    = 1988


/* Cornelius Krasel, U Wuerzburg, Dept. of Pharmacology, Versbacher Str. 9 */
/* D-97078 Wuerzburg, Germany   email: phak004 at  SP3 */
/* "Science is the game we play with God to find out what His rules are."  */

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