Breaking the barriers between biology, chemistry and physics.

Athel athel at IR2CBM.CNRS-MRS.FR
Wed Oct 8 11:52:26 EST 1997

Toke Lindegaard Knudsen <tlk at> wrote:

>A number of chemists report that plants, animals and human beings ROUTINELY TRANSMUTE MID-RANGE ELEMENTS (for example, potassium into  calcium or magnesium into calcium) AS PART OF THEIR ORDINARY DAILY  METABOLISM.


>Now let us examine the evidence for biological transmutation. Crabs,  shellfish and crayfish have shells made largely of calcium. A crab 17 cm by 10 cm has a shell weighing around 350 grams. Periodically these animals shed their shell and create a new one. This is called molting.

<followed by a great deal of stuff that purports to show that crabs can
make calcium out of other elements, and various other claims of a
similar kind>

Where did you get the idea that "crabs, shellfish and crayfish have
shells made largely of calcium"? My impression, confirmed by various
standard biochemistry textbooks, is that crustacean shells are made
mainly out of chitin, a polymer of N-acetylglucosamine, which contains
carbon, oxygen, hydrogen and nitrogen, all of them readily available
from the sort of things crabs eat, and no calcium. That doesn't mean, of
course, that crab shells don't contain any calcium at all, but it
suggests we ought to look at the facts a little more closely before
before leaping to the conclusion that transmutation of elements is going

Athel Cornish-Bowden

Email: athel at
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