GA and TG dinucleotides are more useful than GC content for gene finding

Adachi adachi at
Wed Apr 17 18:20:51 EST 2002

I break down 64 codons into 16 head dinucleotides and 16 back dinucleotides 
to abridge Kazusa Codon Usage Table (
Occurrence frequency of dinucleotides GA is maximum at head of codon 
and is minimum at back of codon , on the other hand dinucleotides 
TG is minimum at head and maximum at tail for most typical species from Homo
 sapiens to E. coli .
Therefore correct open reading frame will have maximum (GA-TG) content in si
x reading frames. 
I think this GA and TG characteristics are more useful than GC content 
to find correct open reading frame and gene.
Please refer to my home page in detail http://
Osaka Science & Technology Center
Riichi Adachi
adachi at


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