testosterone in human evolution... possible support

James Michael Howard jmhoward at arkansas.net
Sat Apr 26 12:39:06 EST 2003

It is my hypothesis that human evolution is primarily determined by
testosterone; "Androgens in Human Evolution. A New Explanation of Human
Evolution," Rivista di Biologia / Biology Forum 2001; 94: 345-362.  Also, if
interested, please see "Hormones in Mammalian Evolution," same journal 2001;
94: 177-184 and " 'Mitochondrial Eve,' 'Y Chromosome Adam,' Testosterone, and
Human Evolution," same journal 2002;  95: 319-326.

A study of testosterone levels has recently reported levels of testosterone in
humans, bonobos, chimpanzees, mountain and lowland gorillas, and orangutans
which directly parallel the relatedness (Fig 4, page 68).  That is, humans
exhibit the highest, bonobos next, chimpanzees next, mountain gorilla and
lowland gorilla next, with orangs having the least.  L.R. Hagey and N.M. Czekala
"Comparative Urinary Androstanes in the Great Apes," General and Comparative
Endocrinology 2003 (January); 130 (1): 64-69.

I suggest this supports my hypotheses regarding primate and human evolution.

James Michael Howard
Fayetteville, Arkansas, U.S.A.

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