[Cell-biology] An update on tumor suppressor genes in breast cancer.

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An update on tumor suppressor genes in breast cancer.

by Marc Lacroix
InTextoResearch, Baelen (Wallonia), Belgium
in Tumor Suppressor Genes, Nova Sciences Publishers, ISBN
1-60021-693-5 (2007), pp. 177-251


   Breast cancer is characterized by the accumulation of genetic
alterations, including point mutations and loss of entire DNA regions
("loss of heterozygosity" or LOH). Among genes that are affected by
such events, the "tumor suppressor genes" (TSGs) have a peculiar
interest since they often occupy pivotal positions in regulatory
networks that control the cell cycle and/or encompass various signal
transduction cascades. While a number of genes have been suggested as
candidate TSGs in breast cancer, only a few of them have been
confirmed in this status. They include TP53, BRCA1, BRCA2...and are
mainly involved in the control of DNA repair, cell proliferation,
apoptosis and signaling. Some TSGs are linked to familial (hereditary)
forms of breast cancer. The exact definition of what is a TSG is still
debated. Recently, genes not affected by mutation or even LOH, but
occasionally methylated have been considered as TSGs.



Genes listed:


On chromosome 1: CLCA2, DIRAS3 (ARHI, RHOI, NOEY2), LPHH1, TTC4,
RAD54L (RAD54), FABP3 (MDGI), RUNX3 (CBFA3, AML2), PRDM2 transcript 1
(RIZ transcript 1), SFN (14-3-3s)

On chromosome 3: ROBO1 (DUTT1), PTPG (PTPRG); FHIT (FRA3B, included),
PB1 (BAF180), RASSF1 transcript A, RBM5 (LUCA-15, H37), TUSC4 (NPRL2),
TMEM158 (RIS1), SEMA3B, TGFBR2 (HNPCC6), APRG1 (C3ORF35), RARB
transcript 2, VHL, ATR (FRP1)

On chromosome 4: SLIT2, PRDM5, HPGD (PGDH1)

On chromosome 5: DAB2 (C9), APC, IRF1

On chromosome 6: PLAGL1 (ZAC, LOT1), LATS1 (WARTS), IGF2R (MPRI)

On chromosome 7: ST7 (TSG7, RAY1, FAM4A1, HELG)

On chromosome 8: SFRP1 (FRP), DLC1 (ARHGAP7), BNIP3L, RHOBTB2 (DBC2),
LZTS1 (FEZ1, F37), MTUS1 (ATIP), MCPH1 (BRIT1), ST18

On chromosome 9: CDKN2A (p16INK4A, p14ARF), SYK, DAB2IP (AIP1), TSC1

On chromosome 10: PTEN (MMAC1), PDCD4, MGMT

On chromosome 11: WT1, TSG101, CDKN1C (BWS), CST6, IGSF4 (TSLC1, ST17,
NECL2), ATM, LOH11CR2A (BCSC1)

On chromosome 12: CCND2

On chromosome 13: LATS2, BRCA2 (FANCD1), RB1, ARL11 (ARLTS1)

On chromosome 15: RAD51 (RECA)

On chromosome 16: TSC2, CYLD, CTCF, CDH1, TERF2 (TRF2), TERFIP, FBXL8,
LRRC29, ATBF1, WWOX, FBXO31, CBFA2T3 transcript B (MTG16), CPNE7,
CDK10 (PISSLRE), FANCA, GAS11, C16ORF3

On chromosome 17: MAP2K4 (SERK1, SEK1, PRKMK4, MEK4), GABARAP, TP53,
IC1, OVCA1(DPH1, DPH2L1), BRCA1, BECN1, SLC9A3R1

On chromosome 18: EPB41L3, SMAD4 (ELAC1, DPC4), DCC

On chromosome 19: STK11 (LKB1)

On chromosome 22: SMARCB1 (BAF47, SNF5), RRP22, TMPRSS6, CHEK2 (CHK2,
RAD53), NF2, PRR5


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