Contamination modeling in food chains

James P. H. Fuller nstar!crom2!jim at ndcheg.cheg.nd.edu
Sun Aug 25 20:55:09 EST 1991



spatial!tim at uunet.uu.net (Tim Eckert) writes:

> I am looking for any and all verifiable food chain models for tracing
> metals and chemicals over various pathways.  For ex., I want models
> that can predict metal and chemical concentrations from soils and water
> through plants, plankton, soil organisms, birds, terrestrial animals,
> fish, bottom dwellers of ponds and lakes, up to people.  Any models or
> information on who might have these types of models for any part of any
> pathway at is greatly appreciated.


     I'm posting the following (subject to the moderator's approval) rather
than merely mailing it to the gentleman looking for models because it may be
of interest to others to learn of the simulation and modeling software dis-
tributed by the Environmental Protection Agency.  The following has been
HEAVILY edited before posting (the original is 85 kbytes long.)  Please send
me email to jim at crom2.rn.com if you wish more details about obtaining any of
this software, either from the EPA on tape or disk, via modem from the CEAM
BBS mentioned below (HST) or from the crom2 system (PEP/uucp or V.32/zmodem.)
The CEAM BBS is not on the Internet and cannot be reached by telnet or ftp.

     P.S. For Dr. Eckert I particularly point out the "Food and Gill Exchange
of Toxic Substances" model (FGETS) and the "WASP Food Chain" model (FCM2.)


crom2 Athens GA Public Access Unix   |  i486 AT, 16mb RAM, 600mb online
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   Ecological Modeling               |    admin: James P. H. Fuller
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                           ENVIRONMENTAL SOFTWARE
                                   AT THE
                  U. S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S
                  CENTER FOR EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT MODELING
                   (Submitted to Environmental Software)
                              (1 March 1989)


         Robert B. Ambrose, Jr., P.E., and Thomas O. Barnwell, Jr.

                  Center for Exposure Assessment Modeling
                     Environmental Research Laboratory
                    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
                             Athens, GA  30613


ABSTRACT

     The Center for Exposure Assessment Modeling (CEAM) was established to
meet the scientific and technical exposure assessment needs of the United
States Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Program and Regional Offices
and the various state environmental agencies.  To support environmental
risk-based decisions concerning protection of air, water, and soil, CEAM
provides proven predictive exposure assessment techniques for aquatic,
atmospheric, terrestrial, and multimedia pathways for organic chemicals and
metals.  A wide range of analysis techniques is provided, ranging from
simple desk-top techniques suitable for screening analysis through
computerized steady-state models to sophisticated, state-of-the-art
continuous simulation models.  This paper reviews the capabilities of 12
environmental simulation models for urban and rural nonpoint sources,
conventional and toxic pollution of streams, lakes and estuaries, tidal
hydrodynamics, geochemical equilibrium, and aquatic food chain
bioaccumulation.

[text deleted .....]

SOFTWARE AVAILABILITY

     CEAM maintains a distribution center for continually updated models
(codes and documentation) and databases for users.  All computer code
distributed by CEAM is considered to be in the public domain and is freely
available to users.  Persons interested in obtaining the software described
in this article should send their requests to the Model Support Section at
the authors' address.  Requests for PC versions of the software should be
accompanied by the proper number of diskettes (see Table I).

[text deleted .....]

In response to requests for software, the Center provides a copy of the
model documentation and computer code on either a 9-track magnetic tape or,
when appropriate, on user-supplied diskettes for IBM-PC compatible personal
computers.  The programs are written in standard FORTRAN 77 and are
maintained for both the IBM PC-compatible and the DEC/VAX with VMS
operating system.  Executable code is available for the MS/DOS environment. 
Source code only is available for the VAX environment.  These programs have
been installed on a wide range of computers world-wide with, at most, minor
modifications.

[text deleted .....]

     CEAM operates an Electronic Bulletin Board System (BBS) to meet the
increasing demand for exposure assessment models supported by the Center. 
It allows efficient communication between users with modem-equipped
computers and CEAM support staff as well as immediate acquisition of models
by those under extreme time pressure.  The services presently offered are:
1. downloading of CEAM supported models; 2. uploading of user input data
sets for staff review and problem solving; 3. a bulletin area listing
current CEAM activities and events, such as training courses, helpful hints
about the models, and model documentation; and 4. a message area for
discussion of computer modeling problems and enhancements.  To access the
CEAM BBS, a user must call 404/5463402 or FTS 250-3402 and follow the
interactive prompts.  The communications parameters are 9600/2400/1200
baud, no parity, 8 data bits, and 1 stop bit.


CURRENTLY DISTRIBUTED MODELS

     The Center currently distributes 12 simulation models.  These can be
applied to urban runoff (SWMM4, HSPF9), leaching and runoff from soils
(PRZM, HSPF9), conventional pollution of streams (QUAL2E, HSPF9, WASP4),
toxic pollution of streams (HSPF9, WASP4, EXAMS2, DYNTOX, SARAH2), toxic
pollution of lakes and estuaries (WASP4, EXAMS2), conventional pollution of
lakes and estuaries (WASP4), tidal hydrodynamics (DYNHYD4), geochemical
equilibrium (MINTEQA2), and aquatic food chain bioaccumulation (FGETS, WASP
Food Chain Model).  The remainder of this paper will summarize these
simulation models. 

[text deleted .....]

     In addition, GCSOLAR and LC50 are distributed to aid in data analysis
for environmental problems.  Three new models are being tested and will be
distributed in the next year.  RUSTIC will simulate unsaturated and
saturated transport of pollutants in ground water.  MULTIMED will address
multimedia exposure from hazardous waste sites.  TEEAM will simulate ter-
restrial exposure and food chain accumulation.


STORM WATER MANAGEMENT MODEL

     The Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) was originally developed
between 1969 and 1971 and was the first comprehensive model of its type for
urban runoff analysis, although it has certainly not remained the only one. 
Maintenance and improvements to SWMM led to Version 2 in 1975, Version 3 in
1981 and now Version 4 (Huber et al., 1988).  Version 4 of SWMM is the
latest edition of this comprehensive computer model for analysis of quanti-
ty and quality problems associated with urban runoff.

     Both single-event and continuous simulation may be performed on catch-
ments having storm sewers, combined sewers and natural drainage, for
prediction of flows, stages and pollutant concentration.  The EXTRAN Block
solves the complete dynamic flow routing equations (St. Venant equations)
for accurate simulation of backwater, looped connections, surcharging, and
pressure flow.  Using SWMM, the modeler can simulate all aspects of the
urban hydrologic and quality cycles, including rainfall, snowmelt, surface
and subsurface runoff, flow routing through the drainage network, storage
and treatment.  Statistical analyses may be performed on long-term precipi-
tation data and on output from continuous simulation.

[text deleted .....]


HYDROLOGIC SIMULATION PROGRAM - FORTRAN

     Hydrological Simulation Program - FORTRAN (HSPF; Johanson et al.,
1984; Donigian et al., 1984) is a comprehensive package for simulation of
watershed hydrology and water quality for both conventional and toxic
organic pollutants.  HSPF incorporates the watershed-scale ARM and NPS
models into a basin-scale analysis framework that includes fate and
transport in one-dimensional stream channels.  It is the only comprehensive
model of watershed hydrology and water quality that allows the integrated
simulation of land and soil contaminant runoff processes with in-stream
hydraulic and sediment-chemical interactions.

     The result of this simulation is a time history of the runoff flow
rate, sediment load, and nutrient and pesticide concentrations, along with
a time history of water quantity and quality at any point in a watershed.  
HSPF simulates three sediment types (


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