Braid & knot theory in protein folding and genetics?

Thomas Harke harke at
Wed Nov 4 17:28:06 EST 1998

Alex <emacser at> writes:

>Hi.  I read recently that braid theory has some bearing on the protein
>folding problem, and knot theory has some bearing on genetics.  Could
>someone point me at some references which explain how?

Check out "Lifting the Curtain: Using Topology to Probe the Hidden Action
of Enzymes" by De Witt Sumners
(, or the course syllabus
for "Scientific Applications of Knot Theory with Applications to Biology,
Chemistry and Physics at

I'm pretty sure these deal primarily with DNA.  I'd love to see how
braid theory applies to proteins.

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