New Immune Theory

Dr M.R. Clark mrc7 at
Wed Apr 12 08:28:06 EST 1995

In article <3meq28$49k at>,
David Peritt  <Peritt_d at> wrote:
>In article <3memhg$1mq at> B.L.T.,  writes:
>>But how does this relate to antibody production to novel bacteria which 
>>have been heatkilled?  Do B cells have to have this "danger signal", too,
>>in order to differentiate and reproduce and more importantly, to produce 
>>appropriate antibodies.  I would appreciate your response.  Particularly,
>>since I am currently attempoting to rank individuals with regard to 
>>their antibody responses to novel heatkilled bacteria.
>>R. L. Thompson
>Classically B cells need T cell help to make Ab to most Ags (T
>dependent).  Therefore the danger hypothesis may not need to involve B
>cells at all only T.  There is an ability to tolerize B cells but the
>amount of peripheral B cell tolerance has not been clearly demonstrated.

Regarding immune responses to bacteria measured at the level of B-cell
responses it is important to know if you are dealing with T-dependent
or T-independent immune responses. B-cell responses to encapsulated
bacteria mainly recognise the carbohydrate and do not require classical
T-cell help. The immune response commonly follows a pattern of production
of IgG1 followed by switching to IgG2 and IgA (in humans). There is little
evidence of somatic hypermutation and usually no class switching to isotypes
IgG3, IgG4 and IgE.

Mike Clark, mrc7 at
  o/ \\    //            ||  ,_ o   Mike Clark, C.U. Dept. Pathology
 <\__,\\  //   __o       || /  /\,  "to pay for my hobbies I teach
  ">    ||   _`\<,_    //  \\ \> |  immunology and engineer antibodies :-)"
   `    ||  (_)/ (_)  //    \\ \_ 

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