re "new" immune theory..
Dr M.R. Clark
mrc7 at cus.cam.ac.uk
Wed Apr 12 14:24:52 EST 1995
In article <ralph.1148086064A at 188.8.131.52>,
Ralph M Bernstein <ralph at ccit.arizona.edu> wrote:
> also, an idea to one of m.clarks posts,
>>"The problem comes when it's pointed out that we fail to make immune responses
>>to the vast majority of antigens to which we are in frequent contact but which
> I agree with this stmt (and the idea that the "over"simplification for
>undergrads, ect, is too easy to get away with-but perhaps is basically true,
>while there are always some exceptions occurring), but maybe some of this is
>because alot of "things"(antigens) just arent immunogenic, as we know, but
>it could be that they are "crossreactive" with the "self"antigens that the
>lymphocytes were tolarized _against_.
But this is precisely where we get into immunological semantics. There are
many antigens which are not "immunogenic" but which are "antigenic". As
an example if you inject human IgG (deaggregated) into mice they usually
fail to mount an immune response. If you aggregate it or inject it into
adjuvant they make a very strong response.
Human IgG is obviously a foreign "antigen" to mice but it is not always
There are lots of molecules which it is possible to raise an immune response
to under some circumstances but in general you have to present them in
a special way to make them "immunogenic".
Now the idea is that the innate immune system has invariant receptors
which are either geared up to recognising distress signals such as
heat shock proteins or which recognise foreign antigens such as
carbohydrate. The innate immune system includes the alterantive
complement pathway and macrophages, neutrophils , NK cells etc.
These cells and components are capable of recognising bacterial or
viral infections, tissue damage and cell injury without T-cell involvement.
They are of prime importance in getting the primary immune response
to infections going within the adaptive immune response.
Mike Clark, mrc7 at cam.ac.uk http://www.path.cam.ac.uk/MikeClark/
o/ \\ // || ,_ o Mike Clark, C.U. Dept. Pathology
<\__,\\ // __o || / /\, "to pay for my hobbies I teach
"> || _`\<,_ // \\ \> | immunology and engineer antibodies :-)"
` || (_)/ (_) // \\ \_
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