A NEW BREAKTHROUGH!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

Christopher J. Savoie savoie at bioreg.kyushu-u.ac.jp
Thu Jun 15 22:00:00 EST 1995

Keep your shit off this net.  It just might piss some people off in a bad way....

We're using this net to do science, thank you...not to buy bullshit products.

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E D I C T 

Copyright (C) 1994,1995 James William Breen 

Freeware Japanese/English Dictionary file, coordinated by Jim Breen. 


The version date and sequence number is included  in  the  dictionary  itself 
under  the  entry  "EDICT".  (Actually it is under the JIS-ASCII code "????". 
This keeps it as the first entry when it is sorted.) 

The  master  copy   of   EDICT   is   in   the   pub/nihongo   directory   of 
ftp.cc.monash.edu.au.  There  are other copies around,  but they may not be 
as up-to-date. The easy way to check if the version you have is the latest is 
from the size/date. 


EDICT is the outcome of a  voluntary  project  to  produce a freely available
Japanese/English  Dictionary  in  machine-readable  form.   It  was  intended 
initially for use with MOKE (Mark's Own Kanji Editor)  and  related  software 
such as JDIC and JREADER, however it has come to be used in a large number of 

The EDICT file is copyright, and is distributed in accordance with the EDICT  
Licence  Statement  included  at Appendix A. 


EDICT's format is that of the original "EDICT" format used by MOKE.  It  uses 
EUC  coding for kana and kanji,  however this can be converted to JIS or SJIS 
by any of the several conversion programs around.  It is a text file with one 
entry per line.  The format of entries is: 

KANJI [KANA] /english_1/english_2/.../


KANA /english_1/.../

The English translations are deliberately brief,  as the application  of  the 
dictionary is expected to be primarily on-line look-ups, etc. 


EDICT consists of: 

(a) the basic EDICT distributed with MOKE 2.0.  This was compiled  by  MOKE's 
author,  Mark  Edwards,  with  assistance  from Spencer Green.  Mark has very 
kindly released this material to the EDICT project.  A number of  corrections 
were   made   to   the   MOKE  original,   e.g.   spelling  mistakes,   minor 
mistranslations,  etc.  It also had a lot of duplications,  which  have  been 
removed.  It  contained  about  1900  unique  entries.  Mark Edwards has also 
kindly given permission for the vocabulary  files  developed  for  KG  (Kanji 
Guess) to be added to EDICT. 

(b) additions by Jim Breen.  I laboriously keyed in a ~2000 entry  dictionary 
used  in  my  first  year nihongo course at Swinburne Institute of Technology 
years ago (I was given permission by the authors to do this).  I then  worked 
through  other  vocabulary  lists  trying to make sure major entries were not 
omitted.  The English-to-kana entries in the SKK files were added also.  This 
task is continuing, although it has slowed down, and I suspect I will run out 
of energy eventually.  Apart from  that,  I  have  made  a  large  number  of 
additions  during normal reading of Japanese text and fj.* news using JREADER 
and XJDIC. 

(c)  additions  by  others.   Many  people  have  contributed   entries   and 
corrections  to  EDICT.  I am forever on the lookout for sources of material, 
provided it is genuinely available  for  use  in  the  Project. I  am 
grateful  to  Theresa  Martin who an early supplier a lot of useful material, 
plus very perceptive corrections.  Hidekazu Tozaki has also been a great help 
with tidying up a lot of awry entries,  and helping me identify obscure kanji 
compounds.  Kurt  Stueber has been an assiduous keyer of many useful entries.  
A large group of contributions came from  Sony,  where  Rik  Smoody  had  put 
together   a   large   online   dictionary.   Another  batch  came  from  the 
Japanese-German JDDICT file in similar format that Helmut  Goldenstein  keyed 
(with  permission)  from the Langenscheidt edited by Hadamitzky.  Harold Rowe 
was great help with much of the translation.  A full list of contributors  is 
at the back of this file. 

At  this stage EDICT is of a comparable size to a good commercial dictionary, 
which typically has 20,000+  non-name  entries  with  examples,  etc.  It  is 
certainly bigger than some of the smaller printed dictionaries, and when used 
in  conjunction  with  a  search-and-display  program  like  JDIC or XJDIC it 
provides a highly effective on-line dictionary service. 


Dictionary  copyright  is  a  difficult  point,  because  clearly  the  first 
lexicographer who published "inu means  dog"  could  not  claim  a  copyright 
violation  over  all  subsequent Japanese dictionaries.  While it is usual to 
consult other  dictionaries  for  "accurate  lexicographic  information",  as 
Nelson put it,  wholesale copying is, of course, not permissable.  What makes 
each dictionary unique (and copyrightable) is  the  particular  selection  of 
words, the phrasing of the meanings, the presentation of the contents (a very 
important  point  in  the  case of EDICT),  and the means of publication.  Of 
course,  the fact that for the most part the kanji and kana of each entry are 
coming  from  public  sources,  and  the  structure and layout of the entries 
themselves are quite unlike those in any published dictionary,  adds a degree 
of protection to EDICT. 

The advice I have received from people who know about these  things  is  that 
EDICT  is just as much a new dictionary as any others on the market.  Readers 
may see an entry which looks familiar, and say "Aha!  That comes from the XYZ 
Jiten!".  They may be right,  and they may be wrong.  After all there  aren't 
too  many  translations of neko.  Let me make one thing quite clear.  NONE of 
this dictionary came from commercial machine-readable dictionaries.  I have a 
case of RSI in my right elbow to prove it. 

Please do not contribute entries to  EDICT  which  have  come  directly  from 
copyrightable  sources.   It  is  hard  to  check  these,   and  you  may  be 
jeopardizing EDICT's status. 


EDICT is actually a Japanese->English dictionary,  although the words  within 
it can be selected in either language using appropriate software.  (JDIC uses 
it to provide both E->J and J->E functionality.) 

The early stages of EDICT had size limitations due to its usage  (MOKE  scans 
it sequentially and JDXGEN, which is JDIC's index generator, held it in RAM.) 
This  meant  that  examples of usage could not be included,  and inclusion of 
phrases  was  very  limited.   JDIC/JDXGEN  can  now  handle  a  much  larger 
dictionary, but the compact format has continued. 

No inflections of verbs or adjectives have been included, except in idiomatic 
expressions.  Similarly  particles  are handled as separate entries.  Adverbs 
formed from adjectives (-ku or ni) are generally not included.  Verbs are, of 
course, are in the plain or "dictionary" form. 

In working on EDICT,  bearing in mind I want to use it in MOKE and with JDIC, 
I  have  had  to  come  up with a solution to the problem of adjectival nouns 
[keiyoudoushi] (e.g.  kirei and kantan), nouns which can be used adjectivally 
with  the  particle "no" and verbs formed by adding suru (e.g.  benkyousuru).  
If I put entries in edict with the "na" and "suru" included,  MOKE  will  not 
find a match when they are omitted or,  the case of suru,  inflected.  What I 
have decided to do is to put the basic  noun  into  the  dictionary  and  add 
"(vs)"  where  it  can be used to form a verb with suru,  "(a-no)" for common 
"no" usage, and "(an)" if it is an adjectival noun. Entries appear as: 

KANJI [benkyou] /study (vs)/ 
KANJI [kantan] /simple (an)/ 

Where necessary,  verbs are marked with "(vi)" or "(vt)" according to whether 
they  are intransitive or transitive.  (Work on this aspect is continuing.) I 
have also used (id) to mark idiomatic expressions,  (col) for colloquialisms, 
(pol) for teineigo, etc. 

The (current) full list of such entry markers is:

        an       adjectival nouns or quasi-adjectives (keiyodoshi)
        a-no     nouns which may take the genitive case particle "no"
        vs       noun or participle which takes the aux. verb suru
        vt       transitive verb
        vi       intransitive verb 
        id       idiomatic expression 
        col      colloquialism 
        vulg     vulgar expression or word 
        pn       person name (family or given) 
        pl       place name 
        giv      given name 
        fem      female given name
        male     male given name
        fam      familiar language 
        pol      polite (teineigo) language 
        hum      humble (kenjougo) language 
        hon      honorific or respectful (sonkeigo) language      
        pref     prefix 
        suf      suffix 
        uk       word usually written using kana alone 
        uK       word usually written using kanji alone 
        oK       word containing out-dated kanji  
	iK	 word containing irregular kanji usage
        io       irregular okurigana usage
        arch     archaism
        X        rude or X-rated term (not displayed in educational software)
	I	 Type I (godan) verb (currently only added to verbs
	         where the type is not implicit)
	IV	 Type IV (irregular) verb, such as "gozaru".

I have endeavoured to cater for many possible variants of English translation 
and spelling.  Where appropriate  different  translations  are  included  for 
national  variants  (e.g.  autumn/fall).  I  use  Oxford  (British)  standard 
spelling (-our,  -ize) for the entries I make,  but I leave other entries  in 
the national spelling of the submitter. 

Users  intending  to  make  submissions  to EDICT should follow the following 
simple rules: 

o  all verbs in plain form.  The English must begin with "to ....".  Add (vi) 
  or (vt) to the first translation if the nature of the verb is not  implicit 
  in the translation(s); 

o add (an) or (a-no) or (vs) as appropriate to nouns.  Do not put the "na" or 
  "no"  particles on the Japanese,  or the "suru" auxilary verb.  For entries 
  which have (vs),  do not enter them as verb infinitives (e.g.  "to  cook"), 
  instead enter them as gerunds/participles/whatever (e.g. cooking (vs)). 
o indicate prefixes and suffixes by "(pref)" and "(suf)" in the first English 
  entry, not by using "-" in the kanji or kana. 

o do not add definite or indefinite articles (e.g.  "a", "an", "the", etc) to 
  English nouns unless they  are  necessary  to  distinguish  the  word  from 
  another usage type or homonym. 

o do not guess the kanji. One of the most persistent problems in editting
  EDICT is finding and eliminating incorrect kanji.

o do not use the "/", "[" or "]" characters except in their separating roles. 

o if you are using a reference in romaji form, make sure you have the correct 
  kana for "too/tou" and "zu", where the Hepburn romaji is often ambiguous. 

o do not use kana or kanji in the "English" fields.  Where it is necessary to 
  use a Japanese word, e.g. kanto, use Hepburn romaji. 

o make sure your kana is correct. A persistent problem is the submission of
  words like "honyaku" as ho+nya+ku instead of the correct ho+n+ya+ku.


EDICT can be used, with acknowledgement, for any purpose whatever, EXCEPT for 
incorporation in commercial products.  It cannot be sold, except at a nominal 
charge  for  the distribution medium.  Consult the EDICT Licence Statement at 
Appendix A. 

It is,  of course,  the main dictionary used by PD  software  such  as  JDIC, 
JREADER,  XJDIC,  MacJDic, etc.  It can be used as the dictionary within MOKE 
(it may need to be renamed JTOE.DCT if used with version 2.1 of MOKE), and it 
is also used by the NJSTAR and JWP Word Processor packages. 

With regard to commercial products, if the developer of such a product wishes 
to make use of EDICT,  an acceptable approach is  to  provide  for  users  to 
obtain  a  copy  of  the EDICT file themselves and access it via the product, 
either with or without a provided utility program. It must not be "locked up" 
through a formatting or  indexing  system.  These  simple  precautions  avoid 
violation of the provisions of EDICT's Licence Statement. 

I will be delighted if people send me corrections, suggestions,  and ESPECIALLY 
additions.  Before ripping in with a lot of suggestions, make sure you have the 
latest version, as others may have already made the same comments. 

The preferred format for submissions is a JIS, EUC or Shift-JIS file (uuencoded 
for safety) containing replacement/new entries.  

Amendments to EDICT are carried out using a "perl" program kindly provided by
Jeffrey Friedl. This program carries out additions, deletions and replacements,
as well as checking the formats of the entries. I would greatly assist if all
contributions to EDICT follow the format set in that program. The format
consists of entries prepended by a letter to indicate the action to be carried
out: A for addition, D for deletion, and E/C for a replacement pair.
Alternatively, the prepended codes can be "NEW: ", "DEL: " and
"old: /new: " respectively.


AKANJI1 [kana1] /new entry #1/

AKANJI2 [kana2] /new entry #2/

EKANJI3 [kana3] /old entry to be replaced/
CKANJI3 [kana3] /replacement entry/

DKANJI4 [kana4] /entry to be deleted/


NEW: KANJI1 [kana1] /new entry #1/

NEW: KANJI2 [kana2] /new entry #2/

old: KANJI3 [kana3] /old entry to be replaced/
new: KANJI3 [kana3] /replacement entry/

DEL: KANJI4 [kana4] /entry to be deleted/

Please provide an annotated reason for any deletions or amendments you send.

The order of entries in the submission file is immaterial, however the E/C
lines must be in order.

I prefer not to get a "diff" or "patch" file  as  the  master  EDICT  is  under 
continuous  revision,  and  may have had quite a few changes since you got your 


With the inclusion of many jinmei and chimei entries,  EDICT is now a very 
large file,  and has a very high proportion of its entries  as  place  or 
person names.  The compiler's own software (JDIC,  XJDIC, etc.) can deal with 
this in a variety of ways,  however other users may  wish  to  operate  on  a 
reduced version which exludes such entries. 

Available with EDICT is a utility program ESPLIT  (ESPLIT.C  and  ESPLIT.EXE) 
which  will  split  the full file into two separate files,  one of which only 
contains the proper-names.  Entries such as "shimizu",  which are both a name 
and a regular entry, are split into a reduced entry on each file. 


The following people, in roughly chronological order, have played a part in
the development of EDICT.

Mark Edwards,  Spencer Green,  Alina  Skoutarides,  Takako  Machida,  Theresa 
Martin,  Satoshi Tadokoro,  Stephen Chung,  Hidekazu Tozaki, Clifford Olling, 
David Cooper, Ken Lunde, Joel Schulman, Hiroto Kagotani,  Truett Smith,  Mike 
Rosenlof,  Harold Rowe,  Al Harkom,  Per Hammarlund,  Atsushi Fukumoto,  John 
Crossley,  Bob Kerns,  Frank  O'Carroll,  Rik  Smoody,  Scott  Trent,  Curtis 
Eubanks,  Jamie Packer,  Hitoshi Doi,  Thalawyn Silverwood, Makato Shimojima, 
Bart Mathias, Koichi Mori, Steven Sprouse, Jeff Friedl,  Yazuru Hiraga,  Kurt 
Stueber,  Rafael Santos,  Bruce Casner,  Masato Toho,  Carolyn Norton,  Simon 
Clippingdale,  Shiino  Masayoshi,   Susumu  Miki,   Yushi  Kaneda,   Masahiko 
Tachibana,  Naoki  Shibata,  Yuzuru  Hiraga,  Yasuaki Nakano,  Atsu Yagasaki, 
Hitoshi Oi, Chizuko Kanazawa, Lars Huttar,  Jonathan Hanna,  Yoshimasa Tsuji, 
Masatsugu Mamimura,  Keiichi Nakata,  Masako Nomura,  Hiroshi Kamabe, Shi-Wen 
Peng,  Norihiro Okada,  Jun-ichi Nakamura,  Yoshiyuki Mizuno,  Minoru Terada, 
Itaru Ichikawa, Toru Matsuda, Katsumi Inoue, John Finlayson, David Luke, Iain 
Sinclair,  Warwick  Hockley,  Jamii Corley,  Howard Landman,  Tom Bryce,  Jim 
Thomas,  Paul Burchard,  Kenji Saito,  Ken Eto, Niibe Yutaka, Hideyuki Ozaki, 
Kouichi  Suzuki,  Sakaguchi  Takeyuki,  Haruo  Furuhashi,   Takashi  Hattori, 
Yoshiyuki Kondo, Kusakabe Youichi, Nobuo Sakiyama, Kouhei Matsuda, Toru Sato, 
Takayuki Ito,  Masayuki Tokoshima,  Kiyo Inaba, Dan Cohn, Yo Tomita, Ed Hall, 
Takashi Imamura, Bernard Greenberg, Michael Raine, Akiko Nagase, Ben Bullock, 
Scott Draves, Matthew Haines, Andy Howells, Takayuki Ito, Anders Brabaek,
Michael Chachich, Masaki Muranaka, Paul Randolph, Vesa Karhu, Bruce Bailey,
Gal Shalif, Riichiro Saito, Keith Rogers, Steve Petersen, Bill Smith, Barry 
Byrne, Satoshi Kuramoto, Jason Molenda, Travis Stewart, Yuichiro Kushiro
Keiko Okushi.

Jim Breen
(jwb at capek.rdt.monash.edu.au)
Department of Robotics & Digital Technology
Monash University
Clayton 3168

Copyright (C) 1994, 1995 James William Breen 

This  licence  statement  and  copyright  notice   applies   to   the   EDICT 
Japanese/English   Dictionary   file,   the   associated  documentation  file 
EDICT.DOC, and any data files which are derived from them. 


Permission is granted to make and distribute verbatim copies of  these  files 
provided  this copyright notice and permission notice is distributed with all 
copies.  Any distribution of the files must take place  without  a  financial 
return, except a charge to cover the cost of the distribution medium. 

Permission is granted to make and distribute extracts or subsets of the EDICT 
file under the same conditions applying to verbatim copies. 

Permission  is  granted  to  translate the English elements of the EDICT file 
into other languages, and to make and distribute copies of those translations 
under the same conditions applying to verbatim copies. 


These files may be freely  used  by  individuals,  and  may  be  accessed  by 
software belonging to, or operated by, such individuals. 

The files, extracts from the files, and translations of the files must not be 
sold  as  part  of  any  commercial  software  package,   nor  must  they  be 
incorporated in any published dictionary or other  printed  document  without 
the specific permission of the copyright holder. 


Copyright  over  the  documents  covered  by  this statement is held by James 
William BREEN. 


As some of the material in edict has been derived from entries in the 
dictionaries of the "Wnn" project, it is appropriate to draw attention
to the copyright statement of that project.

 * Copyright Kyoto University Research Institute for Mathematical Sciences
 *                 1987, 1988, 1989, 1990, 1991
 * Copyright OMRON Corporation. 1987, 1988, 1989, 1990, 1991
 * Copyright ASTEC, Inc. 1987, 1988, 1989, 1990, 1991
 * Permission to use, copy, modify, distribute, and sell this software
 * and its documentation for any purpose is hereby granted without fee,
 * provided that all of the following conditions are satisfied:
 * 1) The above copyright notices appear in all copies
 * 2) Both those copyright notices and this permission notice appear
 *    in supporting documentation
 * 3) The name of "Wnn" isn't changed unless substantial modifications
 *    are made, or
 * 3') Following words followed by the above copyright notices appear
 *    in all supporting documentation of software based on "Wnn":
 *   "This software is based on the original version of Wnn developed by
 *    Kyoto University Research Institute for Mathematical Sciences (KURIMS),
 *    OMRON Corporation and ASTEC Inc."
 * 4) The names KURIMS, OMRON and ASTEC not be used in advertising or
 *    publicity pertaining to distribution of the software without
 *    specific, written prior permission
 * KURIMS, OMRON and ASTEC make no representations about the suitability
 * of this software for any purpose.  It is provided "as is" without
 * express or implied warranty.
 * Wnn consortium is one of distributors of the official Wnn source code
 * release.  Wnn consortium also makes no representations about the
 * suitability of this software for any purpose.  It is provided "as is"
 * without express or implied warranty.

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