A NEW BREAKTHROUGH!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
Christopher J. Savoie
savoie at bioreg.kyushu-u.ac.jp
Thu Jun 15 22:00:00 EST 1995
Keep your shit off this net. It just might piss some people off in a bad way....
We're using this net to do science, thank you...not to buy bullshit products.
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E D I C T
Copyright (C) 1994,1995 James William Breen
Freeware Japanese/English Dictionary file, coordinated by Jim Breen.
The version date and sequence number is included in the dictionary itself
under the entry "EDICT". (Actually it is under the JIS-ASCII code "????".
This keeps it as the first entry when it is sorted.)
The master copy of EDICT is in the pub/nihongo directory of
ftp.cc.monash.edu.au. There are other copies around, but they may not be
as up-to-date. The easy way to check if the version you have is the latest is
from the size/date.
EDICT is the outcome of a voluntary project to produce a freely available
Japanese/English Dictionary in machine-readable form. It was intended
initially for use with MOKE (Mark's Own Kanji Editor) and related software
such as JDIC and JREADER, however it has come to be used in a large number of
The EDICT file is copyright, and is distributed in accordance with the EDICT
Licence Statement included at Appendix A.
EDICT's format is that of the original "EDICT" format used by MOKE. It uses
EUC coding for kana and kanji, however this can be converted to JIS or SJIS
by any of the several conversion programs around. It is a text file with one
entry per line. The format of entries is:
KANJI [KANA] /english_1/english_2/.../
The English translations are deliberately brief, as the application of the
dictionary is expected to be primarily on-line look-ups, etc.
EDICT consists of:
(a) the basic EDICT distributed with MOKE 2.0. This was compiled by MOKE's
author, Mark Edwards, with assistance from Spencer Green. Mark has very
kindly released this material to the EDICT project. A number of corrections
were made to the MOKE original, e.g. spelling mistakes, minor
mistranslations, etc. It also had a lot of duplications, which have been
removed. It contained about 1900 unique entries. Mark Edwards has also
kindly given permission for the vocabulary files developed for KG (Kanji
Guess) to be added to EDICT.
(b) additions by Jim Breen. I laboriously keyed in a ~2000 entry dictionary
used in my first year nihongo course at Swinburne Institute of Technology
years ago (I was given permission by the authors to do this). I then worked
through other vocabulary lists trying to make sure major entries were not
omitted. The English-to-kana entries in the SKK files were added also. This
task is continuing, although it has slowed down, and I suspect I will run out
of energy eventually. Apart from that, I have made a large number of
additions during normal reading of Japanese text and fj.* news using JREADER
(c) additions by others. Many people have contributed entries and
corrections to EDICT. I am forever on the lookout for sources of material,
provided it is genuinely available for use in the Project. I am
grateful to Theresa Martin who an early supplier a lot of useful material,
plus very perceptive corrections. Hidekazu Tozaki has also been a great help
with tidying up a lot of awry entries, and helping me identify obscure kanji
compounds. Kurt Stueber has been an assiduous keyer of many useful entries.
A large group of contributions came from Sony, where Rik Smoody had put
together a large online dictionary. Another batch came from the
Japanese-German JDDICT file in similar format that Helmut Goldenstein keyed
(with permission) from the Langenscheidt edited by Hadamitzky. Harold Rowe
was great help with much of the translation. A full list of contributors is
at the back of this file.
At this stage EDICT is of a comparable size to a good commercial dictionary,
which typically has 20,000+ non-name entries with examples, etc. It is
certainly bigger than some of the smaller printed dictionaries, and when used
in conjunction with a search-and-display program like JDIC or XJDIC it
provides a highly effective on-line dictionary service.
Dictionary copyright is a difficult point, because clearly the first
lexicographer who published "inu means dog" could not claim a copyright
violation over all subsequent Japanese dictionaries. While it is usual to
consult other dictionaries for "accurate lexicographic information", as
Nelson put it, wholesale copying is, of course, not permissable. What makes
each dictionary unique (and copyrightable) is the particular selection of
words, the phrasing of the meanings, the presentation of the contents (a very
important point in the case of EDICT), and the means of publication. Of
course, the fact that for the most part the kanji and kana of each entry are
coming from public sources, and the structure and layout of the entries
themselves are quite unlike those in any published dictionary, adds a degree
of protection to EDICT.
The advice I have received from people who know about these things is that
EDICT is just as much a new dictionary as any others on the market. Readers
may see an entry which looks familiar, and say "Aha! That comes from the XYZ
Jiten!". They may be right, and they may be wrong. After all there aren't
too many translations of neko. Let me make one thing quite clear. NONE of
this dictionary came from commercial machine-readable dictionaries. I have a
case of RSI in my right elbow to prove it.
Please do not contribute entries to EDICT which have come directly from
copyrightable sources. It is hard to check these, and you may be
jeopardizing EDICT's status.
EDICT is actually a Japanese->English dictionary, although the words within
it can be selected in either language using appropriate software. (JDIC uses
it to provide both E->J and J->E functionality.)
The early stages of EDICT had size limitations due to its usage (MOKE scans
it sequentially and JDXGEN, which is JDIC's index generator, held it in RAM.)
This meant that examples of usage could not be included, and inclusion of
phrases was very limited. JDIC/JDXGEN can now handle a much larger
dictionary, but the compact format has continued.
No inflections of verbs or adjectives have been included, except in idiomatic
expressions. Similarly particles are handled as separate entries. Adverbs
formed from adjectives (-ku or ni) are generally not included. Verbs are, of
course, are in the plain or "dictionary" form.
In working on EDICT, bearing in mind I want to use it in MOKE and with JDIC,
I have had to come up with a solution to the problem of adjectival nouns
[keiyoudoushi] (e.g. kirei and kantan), nouns which can be used adjectivally
with the particle "no" and verbs formed by adding suru (e.g. benkyousuru).
If I put entries in edict with the "na" and "suru" included, MOKE will not
find a match when they are omitted or, the case of suru, inflected. What I
have decided to do is to put the basic noun into the dictionary and add
"(vs)" where it can be used to form a verb with suru, "(a-no)" for common
"no" usage, and "(an)" if it is an adjectival noun. Entries appear as:
KANJI [benkyou] /study (vs)/
KANJI [kantan] /simple (an)/
Where necessary, verbs are marked with "(vi)" or "(vt)" according to whether
they are intransitive or transitive. (Work on this aspect is continuing.) I
have also used (id) to mark idiomatic expressions, (col) for colloquialisms,
(pol) for teineigo, etc.
The (current) full list of such entry markers is:
an adjectival nouns or quasi-adjectives (keiyodoshi)
a-no nouns which may take the genitive case particle "no"
vs noun or participle which takes the aux. verb suru
vt transitive verb
vi intransitive verb
id idiomatic expression
vulg vulgar expression or word
pn person name (family or given)
pl place name
giv given name
fem female given name
male male given name
fam familiar language
pol polite (teineigo) language
hum humble (kenjougo) language
hon honorific or respectful (sonkeigo) language
uk word usually written using kana alone
uK word usually written using kanji alone
oK word containing out-dated kanji
iK word containing irregular kanji usage
io irregular okurigana usage
X rude or X-rated term (not displayed in educational software)
I Type I (godan) verb (currently only added to verbs
where the type is not implicit)
IV Type IV (irregular) verb, such as "gozaru".
I have endeavoured to cater for many possible variants of English translation
and spelling. Where appropriate different translations are included for
national variants (e.g. autumn/fall). I use Oxford (British) standard
spelling (-our, -ize) for the entries I make, but I leave other entries in
the national spelling of the submitter.
Users intending to make submissions to EDICT should follow the following
o all verbs in plain form. The English must begin with "to ....". Add (vi)
or (vt) to the first translation if the nature of the verb is not implicit
in the translation(s);
o add (an) or (a-no) or (vs) as appropriate to nouns. Do not put the "na" or
"no" particles on the Japanese, or the "suru" auxilary verb. For entries
which have (vs), do not enter them as verb infinitives (e.g. "to cook"),
instead enter them as gerunds/participles/whatever (e.g. cooking (vs)).
o indicate prefixes and suffixes by "(pref)" and "(suf)" in the first English
entry, not by using "-" in the kanji or kana.
o do not add definite or indefinite articles (e.g. "a", "an", "the", etc) to
English nouns unless they are necessary to distinguish the word from
another usage type or homonym.
o do not guess the kanji. One of the most persistent problems in editting
EDICT is finding and eliminating incorrect kanji.
o do not use the "/", "[" or "]" characters except in their separating roles.
o if you are using a reference in romaji form, make sure you have the correct
kana for "too/tou" and "zu", where the Hepburn romaji is often ambiguous.
o do not use kana or kanji in the "English" fields. Where it is necessary to
use a Japanese word, e.g. kanto, use Hepburn romaji.
o make sure your kana is correct. A persistent problem is the submission of
words like "honyaku" as ho+nya+ku instead of the correct ho+n+ya+ku.
EDICT can be used, with acknowledgement, for any purpose whatever, EXCEPT for
incorporation in commercial products. It cannot be sold, except at a nominal
charge for the distribution medium. Consult the EDICT Licence Statement at
It is, of course, the main dictionary used by PD software such as JDIC,
JREADER, XJDIC, MacJDic, etc. It can be used as the dictionary within MOKE
(it may need to be renamed JTOE.DCT if used with version 2.1 of MOKE), and it
is also used by the NJSTAR and JWP Word Processor packages.
With regard to commercial products, if the developer of such a product wishes
to make use of EDICT, an acceptable approach is to provide for users to
obtain a copy of the EDICT file themselves and access it via the product,
either with or without a provided utility program. It must not be "locked up"
through a formatting or indexing system. These simple precautions avoid
violation of the provisions of EDICT's Licence Statement.
I will be delighted if people send me corrections, suggestions, and ESPECIALLY
additions. Before ripping in with a lot of suggestions, make sure you have the
latest version, as others may have already made the same comments.
The preferred format for submissions is a JIS, EUC or Shift-JIS file (uuencoded
for safety) containing replacement/new entries.
Amendments to EDICT are carried out using a "perl" program kindly provided by
Jeffrey Friedl. This program carries out additions, deletions and replacements,
as well as checking the formats of the entries. I would greatly assist if all
contributions to EDICT follow the format set in that program. The format
consists of entries prepended by a letter to indicate the action to be carried
out: A for addition, D for deletion, and E/C for a replacement pair.
Alternatively, the prepended codes can be "NEW: ", "DEL: " and
"old: /new: " respectively.
AKANJI1 [kana1] /new entry #1/
AKANJI2 [kana2] /new entry #2/
EKANJI3 [kana3] /old entry to be replaced/
CKANJI3 [kana3] /replacement entry/
DKANJI4 [kana4] /entry to be deleted/
NEW: KANJI1 [kana1] /new entry #1/
NEW: KANJI2 [kana2] /new entry #2/
old: KANJI3 [kana3] /old entry to be replaced/
new: KANJI3 [kana3] /replacement entry/
DEL: KANJI4 [kana4] /entry to be deleted/
Please provide an annotated reason for any deletions or amendments you send.
The order of entries in the submission file is immaterial, however the E/C
lines must be in order.
I prefer not to get a "diff" or "patch" file as the master EDICT is under
continuous revision, and may have had quite a few changes since you got your
With the inclusion of many jinmei and chimei entries, EDICT is now a very
large file, and has a very high proportion of its entries as place or
person names. The compiler's own software (JDIC, XJDIC, etc.) can deal with
this in a variety of ways, however other users may wish to operate on a
reduced version which exludes such entries.
Available with EDICT is a utility program ESPLIT (ESPLIT.C and ESPLIT.EXE)
which will split the full file into two separate files, one of which only
contains the proper-names. Entries such as "shimizu", which are both a name
and a regular entry, are split into a reduced entry on each file.
The following people, in roughly chronological order, have played a part in
the development of EDICT.
Mark Edwards, Spencer Green, Alina Skoutarides, Takako Machida, Theresa
Martin, Satoshi Tadokoro, Stephen Chung, Hidekazu Tozaki, Clifford Olling,
David Cooper, Ken Lunde, Joel Schulman, Hiroto Kagotani, Truett Smith, Mike
Rosenlof, Harold Rowe, Al Harkom, Per Hammarlund, Atsushi Fukumoto, John
Crossley, Bob Kerns, Frank O'Carroll, Rik Smoody, Scott Trent, Curtis
Eubanks, Jamie Packer, Hitoshi Doi, Thalawyn Silverwood, Makato Shimojima,
Bart Mathias, Koichi Mori, Steven Sprouse, Jeff Friedl, Yazuru Hiraga, Kurt
Stueber, Rafael Santos, Bruce Casner, Masato Toho, Carolyn Norton, Simon
Clippingdale, Shiino Masayoshi, Susumu Miki, Yushi Kaneda, Masahiko
Tachibana, Naoki Shibata, Yuzuru Hiraga, Yasuaki Nakano, Atsu Yagasaki,
Hitoshi Oi, Chizuko Kanazawa, Lars Huttar, Jonathan Hanna, Yoshimasa Tsuji,
Masatsugu Mamimura, Keiichi Nakata, Masako Nomura, Hiroshi Kamabe, Shi-Wen
Peng, Norihiro Okada, Jun-ichi Nakamura, Yoshiyuki Mizuno, Minoru Terada,
Itaru Ichikawa, Toru Matsuda, Katsumi Inoue, John Finlayson, David Luke, Iain
Sinclair, Warwick Hockley, Jamii Corley, Howard Landman, Tom Bryce, Jim
Thomas, Paul Burchard, Kenji Saito, Ken Eto, Niibe Yutaka, Hideyuki Ozaki,
Kouichi Suzuki, Sakaguchi Takeyuki, Haruo Furuhashi, Takashi Hattori,
Yoshiyuki Kondo, Kusakabe Youichi, Nobuo Sakiyama, Kouhei Matsuda, Toru Sato,
Takayuki Ito, Masayuki Tokoshima, Kiyo Inaba, Dan Cohn, Yo Tomita, Ed Hall,
Takashi Imamura, Bernard Greenberg, Michael Raine, Akiko Nagase, Ben Bullock,
Scott Draves, Matthew Haines, Andy Howells, Takayuki Ito, Anders Brabaek,
Michael Chachich, Masaki Muranaka, Paul Randolph, Vesa Karhu, Bruce Bailey,
Gal Shalif, Riichiro Saito, Keith Rogers, Steve Petersen, Bill Smith, Barry
Byrne, Satoshi Kuramoto, Jason Molenda, Travis Stewart, Yuichiro Kushiro
(jwb at capek.rdt.monash.edu.au)
Department of Robotics & Digital Technology
APPENDIX A: EDICT LICENCE STATEMENT
Copyright (C) 1994, 1995 James William Breen
This licence statement and copyright notice applies to the EDICT
Japanese/English Dictionary file, the associated documentation file
EDICT.DOC, and any data files which are derived from them.
COPYING AND DISTRIBUTION
Permission is granted to make and distribute verbatim copies of these files
provided this copyright notice and permission notice is distributed with all
copies. Any distribution of the files must take place without a financial
return, except a charge to cover the cost of the distribution medium.
Permission is granted to make and distribute extracts or subsets of the EDICT
file under the same conditions applying to verbatim copies.
Permission is granted to translate the English elements of the EDICT file
into other languages, and to make and distribute copies of those translations
under the same conditions applying to verbatim copies.
These files may be freely used by individuals, and may be accessed by
software belonging to, or operated by, such individuals.
The files, extracts from the files, and translations of the files must not be
sold as part of any commercial software package, nor must they be
incorporated in any published dictionary or other printed document without
the specific permission of the copyright holder.
Copyright over the documents covered by this statement is held by James
APPENDIX B: WNN PROJECT COPYRIGHT NOTICE
As some of the material in edict has been derived from entries in the
dictionaries of the "Wnn" project, it is appropriate to draw attention
to the copyright statement of that project.
* Copyright Kyoto University Research Institute for Mathematical Sciences
* 1987, 1988, 1989, 1990, 1991
* Copyright OMRON Corporation. 1987, 1988, 1989, 1990, 1991
* Copyright ASTEC, Inc. 1987, 1988, 1989, 1990, 1991
* Permission to use, copy, modify, distribute, and sell this software
* and its documentation for any purpose is hereby granted without fee,
* provided that all of the following conditions are satisfied:
* 1) The above copyright notices appear in all copies
* 2) Both those copyright notices and this permission notice appear
* in supporting documentation
* 3) The name of "Wnn" isn't changed unless substantial modifications
* are made, or
* 3') Following words followed by the above copyright notices appear
* in all supporting documentation of software based on "Wnn":
* "This software is based on the original version of Wnn developed by
* Kyoto University Research Institute for Mathematical Sciences (KURIMS),
* OMRON Corporation and ASTEC Inc."
* 4) The names KURIMS, OMRON and ASTEC not be used in advertising or
* publicity pertaining to distribution of the software without
* specific, written prior permission
* KURIMS, OMRON and ASTEC make no representations about the suitability
* of this software for any purpose. It is provided "as is" without
* express or implied warranty.
* Wnn consortium is one of distributors of the official Wnn source code
* release. Wnn consortium also makes no representations about the
* suitability of this software for any purpose. It is provided "as is"
* without express or implied warranty.
* KURIMS, OMRON, ASTEC AND WNN CONSORTIUM DISCLAIM ALL WARRANTIES WITH
* REGARD TO THIS SOFTWARE, INCLUDING ALL IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF
* MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS, IN NO EVENT SHALL KURIMS, OMRON, ASTEC OR
* WNN CONSORTIUM BE LIABLE FOR ANY SPECIAL, INDIRECT OR CONSEQUENTIAL
* DAMAGES OR ANY DAMAGES WHATSOEVER RESULTING FROM LOSS OF USE, DATA OR
* PROFITS, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, NEGLIGENCE OR OTHER
* TORTUOUS ACTION, ARISING OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE USE OR
* PERFORMANCE OF THIS SOFTWARE.
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