Disease vs Immunization" e.g. Brucella
jcherwon at dres.dnd.ca
Wed Oct 25 15:53:31 EST 1995
There's an interesting discussion on disease vs immunization which seems
to be focusing on the similarities. As this is an immunology net, I'd like to
add a few comments on immunological differences between vaccination and
immunization, using Brucella as an example.
In cattle populations, animals are immunized with an attenuated strain
(B. abortus strain 19). In the 1970s-early 1980s, a Spanish/American team
found there was a compound from Brucella that can differentiate vaccinated
from infected animals. In the 1980s, a Canadian team found this was purified
O-polysaccharide (OPS). Purified OPS is recognized by infected animal
antibodies when this antigen is used either in immunodiffusion plates or in
ELISAs, when the OPS is part of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) it is recognized by
both vaccinate and infected cattle sera. Monoclonal antibody studies suggest
that this recognition has little to do with antibody isotype.
The mechanism of the above is believed to be that when an animal is
vaccinated, its immune system gets only a quick look at the "tip" part of the
outer layer of OPS, when the animal is infected it has the opportunity for a
long look at the antigens and forms antibodies to the "length" epitopes of the
The above suggests that there are immunological differences between
disease (infection) and immunization (vaccination).
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