Teresa's S/O and G/O hypothesis

Teresa Binstock binstoct at essex.UCHSC.edu
Fri Mar 1 16:10:30 EST 1996

		 S/O = sexual orientation
		 G/O = gender orientation
		GnRH = LHRH = Gonadorelin

   Copyright 1996 as part of Collected Writings of Teresa C. Binstock
 (permission hereby granted to distribute this message in its entirety)

For the last seven years I have focused upon causal substrates of 
sexual-orientation and gender-orientation. My readings and research have 
been wide ranging and have focused upon environmental/psychogenic 
factors, neuroanatomy, hormones and related enzymes, neuro-active 
steroids and neurosteroids, in utero teratogens, homeotic genes, 
genomic sex reversals (via X, Y, and autosomal chromosomes), and genomic 
sex differences which are neither hormonal nor gonadal. 

Lastly, I have focused upon immunology and related processes in humans 
and in a cross-species and evolutionary perspective. 'Tis within 
immunological mechanisms that I feel I have come closest to identifying  
the substrate whereby sexual- and gender-orientations and variations 
thereof occur in most humans. 

Although various authors have touched upon immunological contributions 
to sexuality and to sexual orientation (eg, Wachtel, Boyse, Gualteri, Hicks, 
Blanchard, Wedekind, etc), no article that I have yet found asserts an 
intra-individual immunological mechanism by which S/O or G/O or their 
variations occur. And if such assertions/hypotheses are in the 
literature, I would very much appreciate being informed via specific 

			***       ***       ***


The biological basis of sexual- and gender-orientations is to be found 
amidst immunological tissues of the nasal mucosa and possibly of the 
epidermis. The closest analogy is a-factor and alpha-factor pheromones of 
the yeast Saccharomyces Cerevisiae; however, an important distinction 
must be kept in mind regarding the word "pheromones".
1. S. Cerevisiae does not have a nose, a nasal mucosa, nor an olfactory 
organ nor a vomeronasal organ.
2. The chemo-signal communications to which I refer regarding S/O and G/O 
are neither olfactory nor vomeronasal, even though those two processes do 
communicate aspects of sexual, maternal/neonate and social interaction. 
3. The chemo-signals regarding S/O and G/O instead are received 
throughout the nasal mucosa's immunologically reactive tissue and are 
processed through Antigen-Presenting Cells, T-cells and B-cells, and 
through immuno-mechanisms generally labeled as "innate immunity". 

Some founding notions of Teresa's S/O G/O hypothesis include:
1. S. Cerevisiae alpha-factor mating pheromone is homologous to  
   mammalian GnRH. 
2. Mammalian GnRH is first expressed in the olfactory placode and 
   migrates to various forebrain regions. 
3. a-factor and alpha-factor mating pheromones are received by 
   membrane-spanning molecules labeled ste2 and ste3.
4. ste2 and ste3 homologues are present in human T-cells. 
5. Human T-cells also can express GnRH. 
6. Both S. Cerevisiae and human T-cell responses to antigen presentation 
   are mediated by cytoskeletan directedness to the site of antigen arrival.
7. H-Y antigens and their absence (in XX females) and their presence 
   (in X-Y males) are probably an important component of nasal-immunological 
   sexuality, as contributing to mechanisms for immunologically determining 
   self, not-self, same-species, and appropriate mating-type. 
8. et cetera...

			***       ***       ***

In closing:

The "immunological" similarities between humans and S. Cerevisiae are so 
striking as, without further delay, to be worthy of public scrutiny, 
including the fact that these G/O and S/O chemo-signalling mechanisms in 
humans are neither olfactory nor vomeronasal. 

My offering this immuno-sexuality hypothesis is based upon a realization 
that in some subsets of persons with variations of S/O and/or G/O, the 
causality may have occurred via other pathways. Similarly, for genomic 
contributions to S/O and to G/O, just as there are a number of loci now 
identified as capable of inducing cross-sexual genital development, so 
too are there likely to be multiple loci whose various subsets may be 
capable of inducing variations in S/O and/or G/O.

I shall provide references and additional "mini-papers" on this topic to 
persons who so request by e-mail (short messages, please). A home page 
is in the offing but not yet established. 

I'm also interested in ideas regarding how to test my hypothesis 
regarding the immunological basis of S/O and G/O in humans. 

I apologize for the length of this post, and have omitted references and 
further elaboration so as to minimize the length. Thank you.

Teresa C. Binstock, Researcher
Developmental & Behavioral Neuroanatomy
Denver CO USA
			Teresa.Binstock at uchsc.edu

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