Teresa's S/O and G/O hypothesis: a next step

Teresa Binstock binstoct at essex.UCHSC.edu
Tue Mar 12 11:14:37 EST 1996


addendum #5: experimental protocol:

           EVALUATION OF OTHER CELLS re: ste2 & ste3
                            
Recently, I set forth an immunological hypothesis regarding sexual- and gender-
orientations (S/O and G/O) and variations thereof (1). In response, several
individuals inquired about ways to explore the possible role of nasal mucosal
T-cells and related immunological processes in sexually significant chemical
signaling between mammals including humans. 

A useful next step:

   Evaluation of mammalian cells other than the thymic epithelium 
      for the cell-surface presence of ste2 and ste3,
         especially within cells of nasal mucosa and epidermis.

Rationale: 
1. ste2 and ste3 are the sexually dimorphic cell surface receptors for a-factor and
alpha-factor pheromones in S. Cerevisiae (2).
 
2. Many S. Cerevisiae molecules (eg, GnRH) are homologous to similar
molecules in humans and other mammals (3-5). 

3. Cell surface proteins highly homologous to ste2 and ste3 are expressed on cells
of the human thymic epithelium (6), a basic component in T-cell maturation
toward functional specificity.

4. Patel et al did not look at other cell types for expression of ste2 and ste3 (6). 

5. Immunological cells of the nasal mucosa have diverse afferent and efferent
innervations (7,8) and {given sexually dimorphic self-antigen portraits (9)} may
be inducing sexually dimorphic neural responses to mating-type chemical signals
from other organisms of the same species (10-12).

Significance:
   Determining whether human ste2 and ste3 are expressed (i) only on thymic
epithelial cells, or (ii) in at least some cells of the nasal mucosa will be
informative regarding possible mechansisms whereby S/O and G/O may be
encoded not only in yeast but also in humans. 


REFERENCES:

1.
au: Binstock TC
so: Internet Postings via bionet.immunology and other       
    newsgroups and listservers, March 1-6, 1996.
ti: Teresa's S/O and G/O hypothesis (and addenda). 

2. 
au: Kurjan J
so: Annual Rev Genet 27.147-79 1993
ti: The phermomone response pathway in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae.

3.
au: Loumaye E et al
so: Science 218.1323-5 1982
ti: Yeast mating pheromone activates mammalian gonadotrophs: 
    evolutionary conservation of a reproductive hormone?

4.
au: Bassett Jr DE et al
so: Nature 379.589-90 1996
ti: Yeast genes and human disease.         

5. 
au: Roush W
so: Science 271.1056-8 1996
ti: Regulating G protein signaling.

6. 
au: Patel et al
so: J Clin Immunology 15.2.80-92
ti: Characterization of human thymic epithelial cell surface 
    antigens: phenotypic similarity of thymic epithelial    
    cells and epidermal keratinocytes.

7. 
au: Tucker D 
so: Olfaction; Amoore JE et al eds 
in: Handbook of Sensory Physiology, volume IV, 1971
ti: Nonolfactory responses from the nasal cavity: Jacobson's Organ and the
trigeminal system. 

8. 
ed: Wiliams PL  &  Warwick R
so: Gray's Anatomy (36th ed, 1980, Saunders)
ti: The cranial nerves (pp 1054-1086)

9. 
au: Goulmy E et al
so: J Exp Med 155.1567-72
ti: Major histocompatibility complex-restricted H-Y-specific antibodies and
cytotoxic T lymphocytes may recognize different self determinants.

10.
au: Inokuchi A et al
so: Eur Arch Oto-Rhino-Laryngol 249.473-77 1993.
ti: Convergence of olfactory and nasotrigeminal inputs and possible contributions
to olfactory responses in the rat thalamus.


11.
au: Bouvet JF et al
so: Neuroscience Letters
ti: Olfactory receptor cell function is affected by trigeminal nerve activity.

12. 
au: Doty RL
so: Physiol & Behav 14.855-9 1975
ti: Intranasal trigeminal detection of chemical vapors by humans. 



                       Copyright 1996
        Collected Writings of Teresa C. Binstock
 (permission granted to distribute this message in its entirety)


                      Teresa C. Binstock
    Researcher in Developmental & Behavioral Neuroanatomy
                        Denver CO USA
                  Teresa.Binstock at uchsc.edu

                             3.11.96



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