Richard offers the point that, if Patel et al's "undefined" [and
unpublished] STE2 and STE3 are not labeling human thymic antigens
homologous to S. Cerevisiae STE2 and STE3, then Teresa's hypothesis
about sexual and gender orientaion is totally shot down. He makes his
point clearly, after which I demonstrate the hypothesis to be alive and
On 14 Mar 1996, Richard Aaron Warnock wrote:
> ...<much snipped>
> Here, you say that
> ste2 and ste3 are on human epithelium. This is based on your medline
> search with ste2 and ste3 as keywords that yielded:
>> 1. Patel DD; Whichard LP; Radcliff G; Denning SM; Haynes BF.
> Journal of Clinical Immunology, 1995 Mar, 15(2):80-92.
> ...ste2 and ste3 in that article refer to antibodies agaist *Surface Thymic
> Epithelium" undefined antigens, and not yeast alpha-receptors.
>> Kinda blows apart the whole thing, eh?
Teresa responds that her S/O and G/O hypothesis is alive and well for the
0. Whether or not Patel et al's STE2 and STE3 are labeling molecules
homologous to S. cerevisiae STE2 and STE3 is not necessarily relevant.
1. Yeast's alpha-factor is functionally homologous to mammalian GnRH.
2. GnRH and GnRH receptors are in the thymus and are expressed on
T-cells; in other words, a mammalian functional-homologue of alpha-factor
is present in the thymus and in T-cells.
3. Yeast's reception of alpha-factor affects cell cycle. At least one
study thus far reports that mammalian GnRH affects cell cycle in T cells.
4. Just as one class of yeast cells generally produces GnRH-like
alpha-factor, so too do human T-cells produce GnRH.
5. Whether or not a-factor homologues exist in humans remains to be
reported; what is clear is that the basic structure of a-factor molecules
is quite similar to endogenous substances in humans.
In general, therefore, the fact that GnRH-receptors exist in the
mammalian thymus indicates that molecules functionally akin to alpha-factor
receptors exist in the mammalian thymus -- totally independently of what
Patel et al were referring to via their use of the acronyms STE2 and STE3.
To move forwards, S. Cerevisiae has genes for both a- and alpha-factor
pheromones and receptors, but generally expresses and utilizes only the
appropriate pheromone and receptor combination. Similarly, male and
female humans, amidst all their beyond-yeast complexity, have all the
GnRH-capabilities enumerated hereinabove, but also have a more complex
immune system than does S. Cerevisiae; thus (at least hypothetically)
humans have more diverse ways whereby sex-identification alternatives
(ie variations of sexual and/or gender orientation) could occur -- ie,
by mechanisms like those of autoimmumity, but focused in relation to
sexually significant chemo-signaling, as perceived in the nasal mucosa and
possibly the epidermis.
Cites in support of the numbered statements:
TI - Evidence that secretory products of the reticuloepithelial cells of
the rat thymus modulate the secretion of gonadotrophins by rat
pituitary cells in culture.
SO - Journal of Reproductive Immunology 1995 Mar;28(3):203-15
TI - Association of the yeast pheromone response G protein beta gamma
subunits with the MAP kinase scaffold Ste5p.
SO - Science 1995 Sep 15;269(5230):1572-5
TI - Signal requirements for production of luteinizing hormone
releasing-hormone by human T cells.
SO - Cellular Immunology 1995 Jul;163(2):280-8
TI - Coordinate gene expression of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone
(LHRH) and the LHRH-receptor after prolactin stimulation in the rat
Nb2 T-cell line: implications for a role in immunomodulation and
cell cycle gene expression.
SO - Molecular Endocrinology 1995 Jan;9(1):44-53
TI - Synthesis and biological activity of fluorescent yeast pheromones.
SO - Biochemistry 1995 Mar 21;34(11):3553-60
TI - Neonatal treatment with luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone
analogs alters peripheral lymphocyte subsets and cellular and
humorally mediated immune responses in juvenile and adult male
SO - Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 1994 Feb;78(2):292-8
TI - Alterations in thymic and bone marrow lymphocyte subpopulations in
GnRH agonist treated prepubertal female mice.
SO - Journal of Reproductive Immunology 1993 Nov;25(2):167-84
TI - Thymus-neuroendocrine-liver pathway.
SO - Medical Hypotheses 1993 Nov;41(5):470-2
TI - Immunoactivation enhances the concentration of luteinizing
hormone-releasing hormone peptide and its gene expression in human
SO - Endocrinology 1993 Jul;133(1):215-23
TI - Functional homology of protein kinases required for sexual
differentiation in Schizosaccharomyces pombe and Saccharomyces
cerevisiae suggests a conserved signal transduction module in
SO - Molecular Biology of the Cell 1993 Jan;4(1):107-20
TI - Thymocytes express a mRNA that is identical to hypothalamic
luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone mRNA.
SO - Cellular & Molecular Neurobiology 1992 Oct;12(5):447-54
TI - Yeast mating pheromone activates mammalian gonadotrophs:
evolutionary conservation of a reproductive hormone?.
SO - Science 1982 Dec 24;218(4579):1323-5
TI - Effect of gonadotrophin releasing hormone in underfed immature rats.
SO - Indian Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology 1981 Oct-Dec;25(4):374-8
TI - Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone signaling at the lymphocyte
involves stimulation of interleukin-2 receptor expression.
SO - Endocrinology 1991 Jul;129(1):277-86
TI - A physiological role for the neuropeptide luteinizing
hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) during the maturation of thymus
SO - International Journal of Neuroscience 1990 Apr;51(3-4):287-9
TI - Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) agonist restoration of
age-associated decline of thymus weight, thymic LHRH receptors, and
thymocyte proliferative capacity.
SO - Endocrinology 1989 Aug;125(2):1037-45