Cites and three responses to GS Fraley's observations:
On Thu, 28 Mar 1996, GS Fraley wrote:
> >In their discussion the authors present that CNS mast cell levels
> >and migrations occur in response to various behaviors and also in
> >response to changes in gonadal and adrenal steroids.
> Yes, however be careful. If you read the several articles which led to the
> review in TINS, you will see they they have not shown the mast cells are
> producing the GnRH (LHRH). It is Ray Silver's hypothesis (from discussions
> with her at various meetings) that the mast cells are acting as a kind of
> resevoir for GnRH.
I do wonder if the authors have utilized techniques that would allow a
conclusion that GnRH (aka LHRH) is not being produced in the mast cells.
At least some precedent for such production is the fact that T-cells
not only have receptors for GnRH but also can produce their own GnRH
(1-4). Also, mast cells have a wide range of tissue-specific
> Also, the function of the habenula (the only site of the
> mast cell migration) is quite unclear, especially in birds.
Habenula or habenular or habenulo... appears in more than 1100 titles and
abstracts in Medline 1966-1996, and also has been studied and reported in
many other articles that did not include the "habenu..." words in title
or abstract. Possibly the best summary of the function of the habenula is
the review by Reuven Sandyk (6). And GnRH has been reported to be found
in the primate habenula since at least 1975 (7), and a sampling of
habenula/primates cites is included (7-16).
> ... except for some possible maybe-type evidence in hamsters, no
> mammalian species have been shown to have this mast cell migration.
Given species differences between birds and mammals, I wonder whether
"migration" is the most operative word when considering mast-cell
contributions to neuronal function. Silver et al (0) write that
"Alterations in the number of mast cells in response to age or
environmental conditions have also been documented in other species
(Hough LB 1988 Prog Neurobiol 30.469-505)." Also, "As noted above, mast
cells are found in the medial habenula of several species."
Teresa C. Binstock, Researcher
Developmental & Behavioral Neuroanatomy
Denver CO USA
Teresa.Binstock at uchsc.edu
au: Silver R et al
so: Trends in Neurosciences 19.1.25-31 1996.
TI - Signal requirements for production of luteinizing hormone
releasing-hormone by human T cells.
SO - Cellular Immunology 1995 Jul;163(2):280-8
TI - Coordinate gene expression of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone
(LHRH) and the LHRH-receptor after prolactin stimulation in the rat
Nb2 T-cell line: implications for a role in immunomodulation and
cell cycle gene expression.
SO - Molecular Endocrinology 1995 Jan;9(1):44-53
TI - Immunoactivation enhances the concentration of luteinizing
hormone-releasing hormone peptide and its gene expression in human
SO - Endocrinology 1993 Jul;133(1):215-23
TI - Thymocytes express a mRNA that is identical to hypothalamic
luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone mRNA.
SO - Cellular & Molecular Neurobiology 1992 Oct;12(5):447-54
au: Sell S et al eds (p29)
so: Immunology, Immunopathology, & Immunity
Appleton and Lange 1996
AU - Sandyk R
TI - Relevance of the habenular complex to neuropsychiatry: a review and
SO - International Journal of Neuroscience 1991 Dec;61(3-4):189-219
AB - ....The anatomy of the habenular complex is well delineated
(Jones, 1985) forming a major component of the dorsal diencephalic
conduction system. Data derived mainly from animal experimentation
over the past decade point to the fact that the habenular complex
functions as an important link between the limbic forebrain and the
midbrain-extrapyramidal motor system...
AU - Barry J
AU - Carette B
TI - Immunofluorescence study of LRF neurons in primates.
SO - Cell & Tissue Research 1975 Dec 2;164(2):163-78
AB - LRF producing neurons were characterized in the squirrel-monkey
(Saimiri sciurus) and Cebus apella monkey... Some specifically
immunoreactive axons apparently run towards
the telencephalon (passing in front of and behind the anterior white
commissure), the mescencephalon and the epithalamus. Some of the
latter give rise to terminal ramifications in the area of the median
AU - Barry J
TI - Septo-epithalamo-habenular LRF-reactive neurons in monkeys.
SO - Brain Research 1978 Jul 28;151(1):183-7
AU - Bowden DM et al
TI - An autoradiographic, semistereotaxic mapping of major projections
from locus coeruleus and adjacent nuclei in Macaca mulatta.
SO - Brain Research 1978 Apr 28;145(2):257-76
AU - King JC
AU - Anthony EL
TI - LHRH neurons and their projections in humans and other mammals:
SO - Peptides 1984;5 Suppl 1:195-207
AB - Using light microscopic immunocytochemistry, we have identified LHRH
neurons and their projections in humans, monkeys, ferrets, bats and
In humans, monkeys, ferrets and bats, however, there are also
substantial projections to the posterior pituitary, habenular complex
AU - Sofroniew MV et al
TI - Immunohistochemistry of vasopressin, oxytocin and neurophysin in the
hypothalamus and extrahypothalamic regions of the human and primate
SO - Acta Histochemica - Supplementband 1981;24:79-95
AU - Parent A
AU - De Bellefeuille L
TI - Organization of efferent projections from the internal segment of
globus pallidus in primate as revealed by fluorescence retrograde
SO - Brain Research 1982 Aug 12;245(2):201-13
AU - Parent A et al
TI - The origin of forebrain afferents to the habenula in rat, cat and
SO - Brain Research Bulletin 1981 Jan;6(1):23-38
AU - Hazrati LN
AU - Parent A
TI - Contralateral pallidothalamic and pallidotegmental projections in
primates: an anterograde and retrograde labeling study.
SO - Brain Research 1991 Dec 20;567(2):212-23
AU - Oades RD
AU - Halliday GM
TI - Ventral tegmental (A10) system: neurobiology. 1. Anatomy and
SO - Brain Research 1987 May;434(2):117-65
AB - ...The role of the
VTA as a mediator of dialogue with the frontostriatal and
limbic/extrapyramidal system is discussed under the theme of circuit
systems. The large convergence of afferents to certain VTA
projection areas (prefrontal, entorhinal cortices, lateral septum,
central amygdala, habenula and accumbens) is discussed under the
theme of convergence systems.
AU - Irle E
AU - Markowitsch HJ
TI - Afferent connections of the substantia innominata/basal nucleus of
Meynert in carnivores and primates.
SO - Journal fur Hirnforschung 1986;27(3):343-67
Although the "habenula" has not graduated to the official recognition
attentdant with its own Medline topic heading, 'tis a well studied
nucleus whose role in behavior ought be no longer overlooked -- including
its LHRH components, whether they be perikarya, neuronal processes, or
(if at all) mast cells of the locally produced or visiting type.