Gut immunology

charles mccarthy pandoc at
Tue Sep 3 12:02:00 EST 1996

In <50hi9n$r26 at> "Neilx." <neil.mabbott at>
>Could anyone please tell me
>whether there are any follicular
>dendritic cells within the Peyer's
>Patches or mucosa of the gut.

Everson MP; McDuffie DS; Lemak DG; Koopman WJ; and others
Dendritic cells from different tissues induce production 
of different T cell cytokine profiles.
Department of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, USA.
J Leukoc Biol. 1996 Apr;59(4):494-8.


The precise role of antigen-presenting cells (APC) in regulating
the balance of T-helper type 1 (Th1) and T-helper type 2 (Th2)
cytokine production is unclear. Dendritic cells (DC), the most
potent APC for activation of naive T cells, were found to
regulate Th1 and Th2 cytokine profiles in a fashion dependent
upon their tissue of origin. Spleen (systemic) DC induce mainly
Th1 cytokines and Peyer's patch (mucosal) DC induce predominantly
Th2 cytokines. These findings support the current concept that
different tissues, each with its distinct microenvironment of
cytokines, hormones, and cellular elements, are involved in the
selection, promotion, and/or maintenance of different immune
responses. With regard to DC, it is apparent that the tissue of
DC origin determines the cytokine profiles produced by T cells
and that DC from different tissues favor either cellular versus
humoral immune responses by influencing T cell cytokine

Liebler EM; Kusters C; Pohlenz JF
Experimental mucosal disease in cattle: changes of lymphocyte 
subpopulations in Peyer's patches and in lymphoid nodules 
of large intestine.
Department of Veterinary Pathology, Veterinary School Hannover,
Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 1995 Oct;48(3-4):233-48.


Changes in the number and distribution of lymphocyte subtypes
were investigated in Peyer's patches in the jejunum and ileum,
and mucosa-associated lymphoid nodules in the proximal colon and
rectum of cattle with end-stage mucosal disease. Mucosal disease
had been induced experimentally in seven of 13 animals by
inoculation with cytopathogenic bovine viral diarrhea virus (cp
BVD-virus). For comparison, six clinically healthy, persistently
viremic cattle were used. IgM+, IgA+, BoCD4+, BoCD8+ and gamma
delta TCR+lymphocytes, and the cp BVD-viral antigen were
visualized in tissue sections by immunohistochemistry. In cattle
with mucosal disease, the size of lymphoid follicles was
significantly decreased in all localizations resulting in
decreased numbers of B-lymphocytes per average follicular area.
In most animals domes were missing and epithelium was invaginated
into the lymphoid follicles. Numbers of BoCD4+ and BoCD8 +
T-lymphocytes were increased per mm2 of lymphoid follicle.
Conversion of these counts into number of cells per average
follicular area revealed, however, that the absolute number of
BoCD4 + T-lymphocytes had decreased within lymphoid follicles and
there was no distinct change of BoCD8 + T-lymphocytes in
comparison to the controls. Interfollicular areas were less
densely populated due to reduced numbers of BoCD4 + and BoCD8 +
T-lymphocytes. cp BVD-viral antigen was detected predominantly in
epithelial cells and in cells with dendritic morphology within
lymphoid follicles. This may indicate that the severe depletion
of B-lymphocytes in the lymphoid follicles is due to alterations
of the microenvironment. The decrease of BoCD4 + and BoCD8 +
T-lymphocytes does not support the hypothesis of T-cell-mediated
tissue damage. Destruction of mucosa-associated lymphoid nodules
does not only lead to local disruption of the gastrointestinal
barrier, but will reduce the seeding of effector cells to the
mucosa and therefore impair the defense mechanisms of the
gastrointestinal barrier.

Everson MP; Koopman WJ; McGhee JR; Beagley KW
Dendritic cells regulate development of alloantigenic and 
mitogenic TH1 versus TH2 responses.
VA Medical Center, Birmingham, AL, USA.
Adv Exp Med Biol. 1995;378:347-9.

Parmentier HK; van Wichen DF; Meyling FH; Goudsmit J; Schuurman HJ
Epitopes of human immunodeficiency virus regulatory proteins 
tat, nef, and rev are expressed in normal human tissue.
Department of Pathology, University Hospital, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
Am J Pathol. 1992 Nov;141(5):1209-16.


The expression of regulatory proteins tat, rev, and nef of human
immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) and tat of HIV-2 was
studied in frozen sections of lymph nodes from HIV-1-infected
individuals, and various tissues from uninfected persons. In
HIV-1-positive lymph nodes, monoclonal antibodies to HIV-1-tat
stained solitary cells in the germinal centers and
interfollicular zones, and vascular endothelium. Staining by an
anti-nef monoclonal antibody was restricted to follicular
dendritic cells, whereas anti-rev antibody bound to
fibriohistiocytes and high endothelial venules. The antibodies
used labeled several cell types in tissues from uninfected
individuals. Anti-HIV-1-tat antibodies labeled blood vessels and
Hassall's corpuscles in skin and thymus; goblet cells in
intestinal tissue and trachea; neural cells in brain and spinal
cord; and zymogen-producing cells in pancreas. Anti-rev antibody
stained high endothelial venules, Hassall's corpuscles and
histiocytes. One anti-nef antibody solely stained follicular
dendritic cells in spleen, tonsil, lymph node and Peyer's
patches, whereas two other anti-nef antibodies bound to
astrocytes, solitary cells in the interfollicular zones of lymph
nodes, and skin cells. The current results hamper the
immunohistochemical study for pathogenetic and diagnostic use of
HIV regulatory protein expression in infected tissue specimens or

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