Immune Response

William Kokolus cm006 at FREENET.BUFFALO.EDU
Mon Mar 29 08:39:12 EST 1999

	Immune responses are also elicited by microbes, etc. that are not
"injected" into the body.  More research needs to be performed that
concerns itself with how immunization through the introduction of
infections and foreign substances into the body may help to promote a
stimulatory inflammatory response.

Peace, always,
William J. Kokolus, Ph.D.

Mon, 29 Mar 1999, Alec
Redwood wrote:

> I answered direct but will answer here as well.  Apart perhaps from DNA
> vaccines (don't know much about how these operate) I don't know of a
> vaccination that doesn't cause some inflammation.  It would be a brave
> person that sates the inflammatory reaction is not a component of the
> immune response (Ag specific).  By the way humoral immunity is not the
> only type of immunity.  However (except for polyvalent Ag) Ag even the
> humoral immune response requires T-cells and T-cells (and B-cells in most
> cases) require Ag presentation.  Ag is presented by APC (in the case of a
> naive response) probably by dendritic cells.  Dendritic cells require some
> signal of Danger (if you want P. Matzingers version) to become activated,
> take up Ag and migrate to regional lymph nodes and on the way become
> better at A presentation.  It is a fair bet that local inflammatory
> responses facilitate this Ag up-take and migration.  So while the process
> of APC presentation to T-cells (with MHC/TCR interaction and second signal
> interaction) is not inflammation, the immune system resists the division
> of different components of it's function into non overlapping functions.
> Where does the inflammatory reaction finish and Ag specific events start.
> Jay and Nancy Mone wrote:
> > While some degree of inflammation always accompanies an injection,
> > inflammation is in no way required for the development of immunity.
> > Inflammation does augment immunity by attractong leukocytes to the area
> > of inoculation, but the process of inducinga humoral immune response is
> > an entirely different pathway.
> >
> > Jay Mone'

William J. Kokolus, Ph.D., President
Fountain Biological Enterprises
69 Ferndale Ave.
Kenmore, N.Y. 14217-1003
phone or fax #: (716) 873-6940
e-mail: cm006 at

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