molbiol method book?

Chris Boyd chrisb at
Mon Aug 30 02:27:43 EST 1999

Cornelius Krasel (krasel at wrote:
: Nina Baltes <nibaltes at> wrote:
: > The concept of a PhD program is brandnew in Germany. My school (School
: > of Veterinary Medicine, Hannover) is the first to have introduced it.

: Could you please elaborate? It is not uncommon even for German scientists
: to get PhDs :-)

I believe that PhDs were _first_ awarded in German universities before
being adopted in other countries. See, for example,

   In medieval universities the term "doctor" was introduced some time after
   "master". "Master" and "doctor" were at first used synonymously, but in
   time "master" came to be restricted to the teachers of liberal arts and
   "doctor", as a distinction, to the teachers of theology and law, and
   later of medicine. In Germany, "doctor" eventually came to be applied to
   advanced degrees in all faculties and it was the German system that was
   adopted generally in the United States.


However, I take Nina's point about the distinction between PhD
programmes and traditional PhDs. Whether adopting US-style PhD
programmes for the sake of furthering career prospects in the US is a
good move for German science is moot. Whatever happened to cultural

Best wishes,
Chris Boyd                      | from (but not \  MRC Human Genetics Unit
Christopher.Boyd at  | much longer)  /      Crewe Rd, Edinburgh          EH4 2XU, SCOTLAND

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