Primer synthesis problems

Austin P. So (Hae Jin) nobody at
Sat Dec 11 18:03:04 EST 2004

Crimes against peace: (1) Planning, preparation,
initiation or waging of a war of aggression or a war in violation of
international treaties, agreements or assurances; (2) Participation in a
common plan or conspiracy for the accomplishment of any of the acts
mentioned under (i). . . . . Pursuant to this Nuremberg Doctrine, the
Bush Jr./Blair war against Iraq clearly qualified as an "aggression" and
an "act of aggression" within the meaning of customary international law
as set forth, for example, by the United Nations General Assembly in its
Resolution 3314 (XXIX) on the Definition of Aggression (1974), and
therefore a Crime against Peace. Furthermore, in addition to being a war
of aggression, the Bush Jr./Blair war against Iraq also violated
"international treaties, agreements or assurances," such as and most
importantly the United Nations Charter and the Kellogg-Briand Peace
Pact, both of which Iraq is contracting party to along with the United
States and the United Kingdom. In other words, the Bush Jr./Blair war
against Iraq constituted a Nuremberg Crime against Peace on both counts.

Finally, U.S. Department of the Army Field Manual FM 27-10, The Law of
Land Warfare (1956) expressly incorporates this Nuremberg Doctrine of
Crimes under International Law as follows: Section II. CRIMES UNDER

498.  Crimes Under International Law

Any person, whether a member of the armed forces or a civilian, who
commits an act which constitutes a crime under international law is
responsible therefor and liable to punishment. Such offenses in
connection with war comprise:

1. Crimes against peace.
2. Crimes against humanity.
3. War crimes.

Although this manual recognizes the criminal responsibility of

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