Pre-AIDS Chimp Discoveries

Thomas Keske TKeske at
Fri Feb 18 21:14:03 EST 2000


SIV is a primate retrovirus that is considered to be the ancestor of HIV.

SIV exists in a wide variety of primate species.  A large number of
other primate viruses had been identified prior to 1980.
Knowledge of the structure of retroviruses was already relatively
detailed, before 1980.  It might therefore seem somewhat puzzling
why there would have been a failure to identify SIV, long before
the AIDS epidemic.

I am attempting to investigate in more detail, exactly how many
primate viruses had been discovered, in what timeframes,
before 1980.   In particular, I was also interested in the record
of experimentation with Pan troglodytes, the type of chimp from
which it has been suggested that HIV-1 is derived.

Appended below is a sampling of PUBMED entries found specifically
for the keywords "Pan troglodyte".   Some of the abstracts merely
mention "chimps", but presumably they mean "Pan troglodyte",
since these were the only searching keywords.

One of the first interesting things that I noticed: Pan troglodytes
were being used in chimp-to-human kidney transplants, as early
as 1969 (PMID: 4950700).   Certainly, this should provide an
interesting note concerning the safety of xenotransplantation,
which is already a subject of concern to the FDA.   Could this
type of transplant from Pan troglodytes have helped to further
introduction of HIV?

Another interesting thing about Pan troglodytes is that they
were considered to be particularly useful as a subject for
experimentation concerning hepatitis B.    Experimental hepatitis
B vaccines given to gay men in the late 1970s have long been
suspected as an agent in precipitating the AIDS epidemic.

Pan troglodytes are now considered to be endangered, which
led me at first to imagine that they were not commonly used as
lab animals.  The PUBMED search suggests more the opposite-
perhaps they are now endangered in part because so much
experimentation was done on them.   Surely, there must have
been a fair chance of a lab that might have stumbled across
the predecessor of HIV.

Some other notes of interest concerning the experiments concerning
Pan troglodytes:

   * experiments with immuno-suppression, as early as 1969

   * experiments involving T-cells, and depression of
     T lymphocyte function

   * experiments with "slow viruses" (1977)  That is, viruses which
      have incubation periods spanning many years, as is
      characteristic of HIV.

   * tumor-promoting experiments

   * infecting chimps with human brain cells of multiple
     sclerosis patients

   * experiments with "unconventional viruses", dengue virus,
     kuru virus, herpesvirus

   * genetic experiments with chimp/human tissues

The first set of experiments listed below involves Pan troglodytes,
prior to the start of the AIDS epidemic.
The second list is studies involving simian retroviruses,
prior to the AIDS epidemic.

Some of these latter experiments involve such things as tests with human
blood and primate retroviruses; immune responses of pregnant women
to simian virus antigens; replication of a primate virus in human
diploid cells.   The earliest PUBMED entry below indicates that
there were at least 49 different simian viruses identified as
early as 1965. Viruses named using the "SVxx" convention mean
that "xx" is the sequence number in the line of discovery.

Tom Keske
Boston, Mass.


PUBMED SEARCH FOR specific phrase "Pan troglodyte"
                  (NOT merely "chimp" or "primate")

J Immunol 1979 May;122(5):1639-42

Lymphocyte activation by the tumor-promoting agent 12-O-
tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA).

Abb J, Bayliss GJ, Deinhardt F

TPA, a highly active tumor-promoting agent, is an effective mitogen
for primate peripheral blood lymphocytes. Optimal stimulation of
human lymphocytes was obtained 4 days after the addition of TPA at
a concentration of 7.5 ng/ml. Lymphocyte fractionation experiments
demonstrated that both T and B cells incorporated 3H-thymidine
significantly in response to TPA. Lymphocyte blastogenesis was not
due to the reactivation of latent herpesviruses by the tumor
promoter, since similar responses to TPA were obtained with virus-
genome positive or negative cells. Increased levels of DNA
synthesis were observed when TPA was added to marmoset, baboon,
rhesus monkey, or chimpanzee peripheral blood lymphocytes. Canine
peripheral blood lymphocytes and spleen cells from guinea pigs,
rats, and mice were not stimulated by TPA. These observations
suggest that TPA-induced lymphocyte blastogenesis may be useful for
studies of lymphocyte activation and of the molecular mechanisms of
action of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.

PMID: 221578, UI: 79195246


1 : Gastroenterology 1979 Apr;76(4):680-4

Acute non-A, non-B hepatitis. Prolonged presence of the infectious
agent in blood.

Tabor E, April M, Seeff LB, Gerety RJ

Non-A, non-B hepatitis, previously transmitted to chimpanzees by
inoculation of human serum, was serially transmitted through a
second and third passage to additional chimpanzees using serum
drawn during acute non-A, non-B hepatitis. Sera obtained at weeks 4
and 5 after inoculation from two different chimpanzees, and from
one chimpanzee at week 13 after inoculation, were shown to cause
elevation of serum aminotransferase levels and abnormal liver
biopsies in recipient chimpanzees, with no serologic evidence of
hepatitis A or B, cytomegalovirus, or Epstein-Barr virus infection.
Serum obtained 3 wk after inoculation did not cause elevation of
aminotransferase levels in the recipient chimpanzee, although a
single abnormal biopsy was obtained. Thus, the non-A, non-B
hepatitis agent was present in serum during acute disease near the
time of the first aminotransferase elevation (week 4; perhaps also
week 3), and persisted at least until 1 week after the peak
aminotransferase level (week 13).

PMID: 421994, UI: 79128613

: J Natl Cancer Inst 1979 May;62(5):1163-7

Human acute myelogenous leukemia antigens defined by simian
antisera: evidence for leukemia-associated antigens distinct from
immune response-associated alloantigens.

Mohanakumar T, Russell EC, Metzgar RS, Dunn N, Phibbs M, McWilliams
NB, Maurer HM

Leukemic blasts from a patient with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML)
and peripheral blood T- and B-lymphocyte subpopulations from his
genetically identical normal twin were analyzed with the use of the
simian antiserum-defining AML antigens and a rabbit antiserum to
immune response-associated (la)-like antigens. Blast cells from the
patient consistently reacted with both reagents, whereas the B-
lymphocyte populations from the patient's normal identical twin
reacted only with the rabbit anti-la serum and in no instances
reacted with the antiserum to AML cell antigens. Blast cells from
the AML patient significantly stimulated the lymphocytes of his
normal twin and his own remission leukocytes, whereas the cells
from the normal twin failed to stimulate the cells of the patient.
These results suggested the existence on AML cells of tumor-
associated antigens that are distinct from various other well-
characterized normal human alloantigens and differentiation
antigens including B-cell antigens. Changes were reported in the
expression of leukemia-associated antigens and Ia-like antigens on
the cells of an AML patient undergoing chemotherapy as well as in
the ability of the simian antisera to distinguish antigens specific
for myeloid leukemias from lymphocytic types of leukemias.

PMID: 86633, UI: 79176047
Lancet 1979 Mar 3;1(8114):488

Safety of hepatitis-B vaccines containing intact 20 nm particles.

Trepo C, Prince AM, Meliconi R, Eddlestone AL, Williams R, Tage-
Jensen U, Nielsen JO

Publication Types: Letter

PMID: 85067, UI: 79133804
: Jikken Dobutsu 1979 Apr;28(2):339-55

[Information exchange on animal models for human diseases No. 17:
The present status of animal models for human diseases in Japan

[Article in Japanese]

PMID: 113228, UI: 80003765
1 : Rev Elev Med Vet Pays Trop 1978;31(3):361-2

The Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), a new host for nymphal Armillifer
armillatus (Pentastomida: Porocephalida) in West Africa.

Ogunsusi RA, Mohammed AN

PMID: 757709, UI: 80168274

Transplantation 1978 Mar;25(3):103-9

Depression of T lymphocyte function in chimpanzees receiving
thymectomy and irradiation.

Gilbertsen RB, Metzgar RS

PMID: 148128, UI: 78160595


Gastroenterology 1978 Feb;74(2 Pt 1):182-7

Immunofluorescence microscopy in experimentally induced, type B
hepatitis in the chimpanzee.

Hoofnagle JH, Michalak T, Nowoslawski A, Gerety RJ, Barker LF

PMID: 340320, UI: 78085439


The establishment of a chimpanzee breeding colony for hepatitis

Klein HG

The chimpanzee is the most appropriate animal model for hepatitis B
research. Because these primates are scarce and expensive it is
important that optimum use be made of available animals and
facilities. The establishment of a chimpanzee breeding colony is
described and a model for providing primates for research is

PMID: 712811, UI: 79050491

Harvey Lect 1978;72:283-353

Slow infections with unconventional viruses.

Gajdusek DC

Publication Types:


PMID: 108233, UI: 79172478

Med Virol 1978;3(2):91-100

Evaluation of five temperature-sensitive mutants of respiratory
syncytial virus in primates: I. Viral shedding, immunologic
response, and associated illness.

Richardson LS, Belshe RB, London WT, Sly DL, Prevar DA, Camargo E,
Chanock RM

PMID: 104004, UI: 79090171
Transplant Proc 1977 Dec;9(4):1737-43

Serologic identification of the common and idiotype-specific
receptors on responder T cells for lymphocyte-activating
determinants in mixed lymphocyte cultures.

Sell KW, Ahmed A, Leapman SB, Strong DM

PMID: 74879, UI: 78097538

Mutat Res 1977 Oct;45(1):69-76

The chromosomal radiosensitivity of lymphocytes from the chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes).

Leonard A, Decat G, Leonard ED, Mortelmans J

The yield of chromosomal aberrations induced by exposure to X-
irradiation in vitro was studied in the lymphocytes of the
chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), a hominoid ape phylogenically and
chromosomally closely related to man. In agreement with the
similarity of the chromosome characteristics, no significant
difference was observed between man and chimpanzee with respect to
the incidence of dicentrics and fragments. It is obvious that the
nuclear area, which apparently constitutes the most evident
difference between the nuclei of man and chimpanzee lymphocytes,
did not play an important role in the yields of aberrations.

PMID: 917036, UI: 78031069

Infect Immun 1977 Oct;18(1):151-6

Virulence and immunogenicity of a temperature-sensitive dengue-2
virus in lower primates.

Harrison VR, Eckels KH, Sagartz JW, Russell PK

Clones of dengue-2 virus were tested for virulence by inoculation
of rhesus monkeys and chimpanzees. Although primates showed no
overt signs of illness, inoculation with the parent virus or a
subline of a large-plaque clone resulted in a viremia lasting 1 to
7 days. By these criteria, sublines of a small-plaque clone were
significantly less virulent and produced little or no viremia in
primate hosts. Although they had a substantially reduced viremia,
primates inoculated with the small-plaque sublines showed
stimulation of complement-fixing, hemagglutination-inhibiting, and
neutralizing antibodies. The protection afforded rhesus monkeys 3
months after inoculation with two of the small-plaque sublines was
demonstrated by a lack of viremia and a failure to escalate
preexisting antibody levels after challenge with the parent virus.
Both the S-1 subline and the parent virus had a limited capacity to
produce central nervous system pathology in monkeys inoculated
intrathalamically and intrathecally. Evidence thus far accumulated
for primates indicates that the S-1 subline of dengue-2 virus has
potential value as a candidate vaccine virus.

PMID: 409682, UI: 78004976

Science 1977 Sep 2;197(4307):943-60

Unconventional viruses and the origin and disappearance of kuru.

Gajdusek DC

PMID: 142303, UI: 77236047
Chromosoma 1977 Jun 23;61(4):345-58

The location of DNA homologous to human satellite III DNA in the
chromosomes of chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), gorilla (Gorilla
gorilla) and orang utan (Pongo pygmaeus).

Mitchell AR, Seuanez HN, Lawrie SS, Martin DE, Gosden JR

Radioactive RNA with sequences complementary to human DNA satellite
III was hybridised in situ to metaphase chromosomes of the
chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), the gorilla (Gorilla gorilla) and the
orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus). A quantitative analysis of the
radioactivity, and hence of the chromosomal distribution of human
DNA satellite III equivalent sequences in the great apes, was
undertaken, and the results compared with interspecies chromosome
homologies based upon Giemsa banding patterns. In some instances
DNA with sequence homology to human satellite III is present on the
equivalent ("homologous") chromosomes in identical positions in two
or more species although quantitative differences are observed. In
other cases there appears to be no correspondence between satellite
DNA location and chromosome homology determined by banding patterns.
These results differ from those found for most transcribed DNA
sequences where the same sequence is located on homologous
chromosomes in each species.
Infect Immun 1977 Jun;16(3):928-33

Transmission of hepatitis B to chimpanzees by hepatitis B surface
antigen-positive saliva and semen.

Alter HJ, Purcell RH, Gerin JL, London WT, Kaplan PM, McAuliffe VJ,
Wagner J, Holland PV

To assess the infectivity of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-
containing body fluids other than blood, chimpanzees were
inoculated intravenously with saliva and semen obtained from HBsAg-
positive individuals implicated in non-percutaneous transmission of
hepatitis B. Saliva and semen samples were negative for occult
blood. The titer of HBsAg in saliva was on the average only 1/3,000
that of the corresponding serum. One chimpanzee, inoculated
sequentially with saliva from three individuals, developed HBsAg at
9 weeks and serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase elevation at 13
weeks after injection. HBsAg persisted for 15 weeks. This animal
also developed e antigen, anti-core antibody, and anti-surface
antibody. Liver biopsies showed acute hepatitis that subsequently
resolved. A second chimpanzee, inoculated with HBsAg-positive semen,
developed HBsAg and elevated serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase 4
weeks after inoculation and then died suddenly without explanation.
HBsAg was positive in two consecutive samples and was confirmed by
specific neutralization. Autopsy did not reveal evidence of
hepatitis. This study demonstrates that HBsAg-positive saliva and,
probably, semen contain infectious virus and suggests that saliva
and/or semen may serve as important mechanisms in the transmission
of type B hepatitis.

PMID: 892901, UI: 77248438

Rev Prat 1977 May 21;27(29):1919-30

[Vaccination, a method of hepatitis B prevention].

[Article in French]

Maupas P, Coursaget P, Goudeau A, Dricker J, Adre M, Barin F,
Raynaud B, Bagros P, Pengloan J, Baudin S, Geslin N, Gueveler C

PMID: 882804, UI: 77235832
Surv Ophthalmol 1977 Jan-Feb;21(4):356-65

Slow virus infections.

Fratkin JD, Smith AG

Slow viruses produce diseases whose incubation periods range from
several months to many years. Because of this long latency period,
the lack of inflammation produced by these diseases and the lack of
recoverable virus particles, it is only recently that the
association has been made between the viruses and the diseases they
cause. The detailed study of kuru, a neurologic affliction of a
remote tribe of cannibals in New Guinea, was responsible for the
synthesis of new and previously gathered information into a unified
framework to explain not only kuru but other diseases as well.
Since then, animal models, transmission experiments and histologic
and biochemical studies have unveiled new links connecting viruses
to previously obscure neurologic, neurophthalmic and ophthalmic

PMID: 402037, UI: 77105172
transfer factor: basic properties and clinical applications 1976
Dec 1;:

Attempted immunotherapy with dialyzable transfer factor in
hepatitis B carrier chimpanzees: induction of delayed
hypersensitivity to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). pp. 449-56.

Trepo CG, Prince AM

Publication Types:


PMID: 787062, UI: 77007021
Science 1976 Nov 19;194(4267):846-8

Thermal stability of human DNA and chimpanzee DNA heteroduplexes.

Deininger PL, Schmid CW

The base pairing fidelity of heteroduplexes formed from human DNA
and chimpanzee DNA has been studied by the criterion of thermal
stability to test the evolutionary conservation of repeated DNA
base sequences.

PMID: 982047, UI: 77038374
J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 1976 Nov-Dec;35(6):644-64

Infection and disease induced in chimpanzees with 6/94, a
parainfluenza type 1 virus isolated from human multiple sclerosis

Lief FS, Rorke LB, Kalter SS, Hoffman SF, Roosa RA, Moore GT,
Cummins LB, McCullough B, Rodriguez AR, Eichberg J, Koprowski H

A parainfluenza type 1 virus (6/94) recovered from brain cell
cultures of two patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) was
inoculated into newborn chimpanzees by the intranasal (IN) or
intracerebral (IC) routes. Four of the five animals receiving the
virus IN developed clinical signs ranging from mild fever, with or
without rhinorrhea, to severe respiratory disease. Two of the
chimpanzees died as a result of pneumonia. Virus could be recovered
from respiratory tracts for as long as 9 days after exposure and
was followed by development of specific neutralizing antibody to
the 6/94 virus but not to the HA2 strain of parainfluenza type 1.
Brain examination showed astrocytosis, especially of posterior
fossa structures, activation of microgliacytes and, in one animal,
round cell infiltration of leptomeninges. Of thse three animals
receiving virus IC, two developed recurrent seizures beginning 14
months after inoculation. One of these was sacrificed at 23 months
of age after progressive neurologic disease, with
electroencephalographic abnormalities, developed. The third animal
died at 3 months of age of intercurrent pneumonia. No virus was
recovered from these animals, although all showed antibody
conversion to 6/94 but not HA2 virus. A variety of pathologic
lesions were seen in the brains of both animals coming to necropsy
particularly in the sacrificed chimpanzee. These included subacute
encephalitis, extensive cortical and subcortical degeneration,
vascular sclerosis, white matter gliosis and axonal dystrophy.

PMID: 186566, UI: 77053067

Modification of chronic hepatitis-B virus infection in chimpanzees
by administration of an interferon

Purcell RH, London WT, McAuliffe VJ, Palmer AE, Kaplan PM, Gerin JL,
Wagner J, Popper H, Lvovsky E, Wong DC, Levy HB

Chimpanzees chronically infected with hepatitis-B virus showed
transient changes in several markers of infection when treated with
the interferon inducer polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidylic acid-poly-
l-lysine carboxymethyl cellulose. Serum Dane-particle-associated D.
N.A. polymerase, e antigen and hepatitis-B surface antigen, and
intrahepatic hepatitis-B surface and core antigens diminished
during treatment. Defective (D.N.A.-polymerase-negative) Dane
particles increased in titre transiently during treatment; these
may play a role in the modulation of hepatitis-B virus infection.
Humoral immune responses in chronic hepatitis-B carrier chimps were
unaffected. Interferon inducers (or exogenous interferon) may be
useful for the treatment of chronic hepatitis-B virus infection.

PMID: 61440, UI: 77010758


Ann Intern Med 1976 Oct;85(4):427-30

Absence of complete homologous immunity in hepatitis B infection
after massive exposure.

Trepo CG, Prince AM

Evidence from prospective studies of human cases of posttransfusion
hepatitis observed among 299 cardiac surgery patients, and from
each of three experimentally challenged chimpanzees, indicates that
immunity to hepatitis B infection can be overcome by massive
challenge doses. However, all cases of hepatitis in patients with
prior immunity have been subclinical. Chimpanzees developed
hepatitis and HBs antigenemia when challenged with hepatitis B
virus that had an antigenic subtype identical to that used in the
primary infection. This response provides evidence against the role
of differences in antigenic composition of initial and challenge
strains of virus as an explanation for incomplete homologous

PMID: 970767, UI: 77020181
Blood 1976 Sep;48(3):339-50

Human acute myelomonocytic leukemia: serologic studies with simian

Mohanakumar T, Miller DS, Metzgar RS

Simian antisera to human leukemia cells were able to distinguish
antigens specific for lymphocytic types of leukemia from those
expressed on certain myeloid leukemia cells. In this investigation,
cells from acute myelomonocytic leukemia patients (AMML) were
examined for their membrane-associated leukemia antigens.  Simian
antisera to both lymphocytic and myelogenous leukemia cells lysed
cells from AMML donors. Monkey antisera to AMML cells, by direct
microcytotoxicity testing, were cytotoxic for cells from all AMML
patients, as well as for cells of certain patients with myeloid
leukemia. Cells from patients with lymphatic leukemia were
nonreactive. However, absorption studies indicated an antigen
present on cells from patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia
which cross-reacted with AMML cell antigens. Sequential analyses of
the serologic reactivity of cells from AMML patients undergoing
chemotherapy corresponded with the clinical course of the patient,
even though there was little correlation between the percentage of
blast cells present and the per cent cytotoxicity with the antisera.
At certain times a higher percentage of seropositive cells could be
detected over that seen on morphological evaluation. The estimation
of leukemic cells by serologic means could aid in the diagnosis and
management of AMML patients during chemotherapy.

PMID: 1066171, UI: 76254559
J Virol 1976 Sep;19(3):1090-9

Antigens and DNA of a chimpanzee agent related to Epstein-Barr

Gerber P, Pritchett RF, Kieff ED

Biological and biochemical studies of the herpesvirus of
chimpanzees previously demonstrated to be antigenically related to
human Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) indicated that the agent is similar
to EBV in that: (i) leukocyte culture of chimpanzees whose sera
contained antibody against EBV capsid antigen could yield long-term
lymphoblastoid cell lines (Ch-LCL) with B-cell characteristics; (ii)
the DNA of Ch-LCL contained sequences homologous to approximately
35 to 45% of human EBV; (iii) Ch-LCL contained an intranuclear
antigen, Ch-NA, that could be identified with some chimpanzee or
orangutan serum in anticomplimentary immunofluorescence assays; and
(iv) treatment of Ch-LCL with iododeoxyuridine resulted in
expression of new antigenic activity that reacted with EA+ but not
EA- human sera. Two lines of evidence indicate that the chimpanzee
agent, although related to human EBV, is a distinct agent: (i) Ch-
NA was antigenically distinct from EBV-rebv infection although it
cross-reacts of a limited extent with a minor component of EBNA;
and (ii) Ch-LCL are missing 55 to 65% of the DNA sequences of human

PMID: 184297, UI: 77009163
Immunopathologie du systeme nerveux 1976 Aug 23;:

[[Transmissible dementia: participation in study from laboratory of
Dr. Gajdusek (NINDS, NIH, Bethesda) and electroencephalographic
study with implanted electrodes during Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in
chimpanzees] pp. 3-11].

[Article in French]

Cathala F, Court L, Lhermitte F, Castaigne P

Publication Types:


PMID: 778057, UI: 76215623
J Clin Microbiol 1976 Jul;4(1):106-7

Recovery of applied human leukocyte interferon from the nasal
mucosa of chimpanzees and humans.

Johnson PE, Greenberg SB, Harmon MW, Alford BR, Couch RB

PMID: 182714, UI: 76260525
 * * *

Markus MB, et al.

Proceedings: Attempted infection of chimpanzees and cats with
Sarcocystis of cattle.  Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1974;68(1):3. No
abstract available.  PMID: 4206530; UI: 74130564.

Transplant Proc 1969 Mar;1(1):629-37

Studies in immuno-suppression. Methods to evaluate anti-human
lymphocyte sera.

Balner H, Dersjant H, Bekkum DW van

PMID: 5002666, UI: 72085561


Transplant Proc 1969 Mar;1(1):408-12

The stimulating and suppressive properties of anti-lymphocyte serum
(ALS) on lymphocyte transformation in vitro.

Eijsvoogel VP, Schellekens PT, Loghem JJ van, Du Bois MJ

PMID: 4944251, UI: 72085499
Primates Med 1969;3(0):52-4

Transplantations of kidneys from chimpanzees to man.

Traeger J

PMID: 4950700, UI: 74274418
Primates Med 1968;1(0):vii-xv

First Holloman symposium on primate immunology and molecular
genetics. Introduction.

Kratochvil CH

PMID: 5006014, UI: 74274374

Primates Med 1968;1(0):68-94

Immunological and structural studies of immunoglobulins of human,
chimpanzee and other non-human primates.

Poulik MD

PMID: 4135383, UI: 74274380

= = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = === = = =


Int J Cancer 1979 Feb;23(2):148-56

Enhanced induction of growth of B lymphoblasts from fresh human
blood by primate type-C retroviruses (gibbon ape leukemia virus and
simian sarcoma virus).

Markham PD, Ruscetti F, Salahuddin SZ, Gallagher RE, Gallo RC

PMID: 216638, UI: 79108823

J Natl Cancer Inst 1978 Mar;60(3):527-32

Cell-mediated immune response to simian oncornavirus antigens in
pregnant women.

Thiry L, Sprecher-Goldberger S, Bossens M, Neuray F

Tritiated thymidine incorporation into lymphocytes of 118 adult
women was studied in the presence of mitomycin C-treated cells
prepared from cell lines continuously producing Mason-Pfizer monkey
virus (MPMV), baboon C-particle virus, or simian sarcoma virus (SSV)
and in the presence of control cell lines documented for the
absence of oncornaviruses. At the end of pregnancy, women who had 5-
9 pregnancies showed a high frequency (53%) of specific positive
responses to cells with MPMV antigens. The frequencies were 15% for
pregnant women with smaller numbers of pregnancies and 3% for
nonpregnant women with similar numbers of previous pregnancies as
in the pregnancy group. None of these nonpregnant women had
lymphocytes responding to stimulation by baboon C-virus antigens,
but positive responses were obtained in 20 and 16% of the pregnant
groups, respectively. No correlation was found between responses to
MPMV or baboon C-virus antigens. Of 48 women (35 pregnant, 13
nonpregnant) who were tested for lymphocyte responses to SSV
antigens, only 2 showed a positive response. The results indicated
that two distinct antigens, related to MPMV and to baboon C-virus,
may be expressed during pregnancy and may then induce a transient
cell-mediated response.

PMID: 203708, UI: 78111507

Virology 1978 May 1;86(1):127-37

Radioimmunologic characterization of RD-114 reverse transcriptase:
evolutionary relatedness of mammalian type C viral pol gene

Krakower JM, Aaronson SA

PMID: 78564, UI: 78205590

J Virol 1978 Feb;25(2):471-8

Molecular mechanisms involved in the differential expression of gag
gene products by clonal isolates of a primate sarcoma virus.

Robbins KC, Okabe H, Tronick SR, Gilden RV, Aaronson SA

PMID: 203717, UI: 78111583


Bull Cancer 1978;65(1):25-30

[Characterization of the viral-type nucleotide sequences detected
in the RNA of human leukaemic cells by probes of murine and simian

[Article in French]

Tavitian A, Hamelin R, Larsen CJ, Marty M, Peries J, Boiron M

Molecular hybridization techniques were used for searching nucleic
acid sequences homologous to murine and simian oncornaviral genomes
in the RNA of various categories of human leukaemic cells. We
report attempts to characterize the sequences that were detected in
defined categories of leukemias. It is shown that: i) although
there is some correlation between the two probes used in our study
with regard to the positivity or the negativity of the tests for
the same leukaemic cases, there are also some discrepancies since
some of the cases are positive with one probe and negative with the
other; ii) the common sequences of the two probes when isolated,
were ineffective to detect any complementary sequences in leukemic
cases which were scored as positive when the entire probes were
used; iii) the complementary sequences detected in three positive
cases of acute myelogenous leukemias by a recycled probe are
additive and therefore most probably distributed along the viral

PMID: 208687, UI: 78211882


Lab Anim Sci 1977 Jun;27(3):356-71

Viral infections of the captive Kenya baboon (Papio cynocephalus):
a five- year epidemiologic study of an outdoor colony.

Rodriguez AR, Kalter SS, Heberling RL, Helmke RJ, Guajardo JE

Rectal swabs, throat swabs, fecal samples, tissues, and sera were
collected from 334 adult and infant Kenya baboons (Papio
cynocephalus) in captivity at this institution over a 5-year period.
A total of 4,893 specimens were collected, resulting in the
isolation of 582 viral isolates (11.9%). The month of November
yielded the lowest isolation rate, while the month of January
produced the highest rate. The most commonly isolated viruses in
adults and infants were SV6 and SV23, followed by N125, SV15, and
SV17 in that order in adults, and SA7, N125, SV15, V340, and SV17
in that order in infants. Nine serotypes, namely enteroviruses SV19,
SV42, SA5, A13, and N203, as well as adenoviruses SV15, SV20, SV31,
and SV37, were isolated only from adults. Two adenovirus serotypes,
SA7 and V340, were recovered predominantly from infants.

PMID: 195135, UI: 77211032
Ann N Y Acad Sci 1977 Mar 4;284:544-65

Interruption of oncornavirus replication by modified rifamycin

O'Connor TE

Thirteen rifamycin SV derivatives containing 3'-alkylaminomethyl
substituents fail to inhibit the activities of the simian sarcoma
virus Type 1 DNA polymerase, and of cellular DNA, RNA, and poly(A)
polymerases prepared from NIH Swiss mouse embryos. These compounds
show a range in their toxicities for NIH Swiss mouse 3T3 cells and
in their capacities to inhibit production of foci of
morphologically altered cells by murine sarcoma virus (MSV). Three
compounds--the N-methyl-N-hydroxyethylaminomethyl, the N,N-dimethyl-
aminomethyl, and the N4-methylpiperazinomethyl rifamycin
derivatives--are comparable to adenine arabinoside and ribavirin in
their toxicity for 3T3 cells, but these compounds show superior
focus inhibition. These compounds inhibit oncornavirus production
apparently by exacerbation of a delay in growth that results from
infection of 3T3 cells with MSV.

PMID: 81643, UI: 79040200


Med Microbiol Immunol (Berl) 1977;164(1-3):167-77

Human humoral antibodies specific for primate C-type viral antigens.

Kurth R, Schmitt C

PMID: 202849, UI: 78091925

Jikken Dobutsu 1977 Jan;26(1):51-64

[Rearing and management of chimpanzees for experimental infection
with hepatitis B virus].

[Article in Japanese]

Koshimizu K, Magaribuchi T, Ito M, Uchizono K, Shikata T

For the purpose of experimental infection with human hepatitis B
virus, 14 chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) were delivered to the
Division of Animal Research, Faculty of Medicine, University of
Tokyo, Tokyo. These chimps, 11 males and 3 females, born in the
West Africa, had been reared for two to six months.

PMID: 558103, UI: 77162223

Dev Biol Stand 1976 Dec 13-15;37:201-4

Replication of primate oncornavirus SSV-1 on MRC-5 human diploid

Horodniceanu F, Sinoussi F, Chermann JC, Tardy-Panit M, Michelson-
Fiske S, Yvert F

MRC-5 human diploid cells infected with Simian Sarcoma Virus from
woolly monkey (SSV-1) were not transformed but an efficient
replication of non transforming SiLV was demonstrated. Increase of
virus reverse transcriptase activity paralleled cell replication
during successive passages. Preliminary results concerning the
influence of viral infection on the life span and the karyotype of
MRC-5 diploid cells will be reported and several implications of
these findings discussed.

PMID: 73483, UI: 78065071
proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1965 Dec;120(3):825-8

Characteristics of the growth cycles of four simian enteroviruses
(SV2, SV6, SV42, SV49).

Heberling RL, Cheever FS

PMID: 4285648, UI: 66079924
1 : Infect Immun 1979 May;24(2):352-6

Hepatitis B e-antigen and its correlation with other serological
markers in chimpanzees.

Ling CM, Mushahwar IK, Overby LR, Berquist KR, Maynard JE

Three chimpanzees experimentally infected with hepatitis B virus,
and another three chimpanzees that were hepatitis surface antigen
carriers, were studied for the presence of viral antigens and
humoral immune responses. Quantitative analyses of hepatitis B
surface and e-antigens in sequential serum samples at early acute
stages revealed cyclic oscillations of these two antigens following
a synchronous pattern. Similar analyses of anti-e-antigen and anti-
hepatitis B core antigen antibodies from the three experimentally
infected primates indicated that peak titers of these two
antibodies occurred as surface antigen decreased to undetectable
levels. Of the three surface-antigen carriers, two were positive
for e-antigen and one was positive for e-antigen antibody for the
entire course of surveillance (8, 9, and 22 months, respectively).

PMID: 457278, UI: 79215307


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