What Genomes have been Sequenced?
robison1 at husc10.harvard.edu
Fri Oct 9 07:51:07 EST 1992
lip at s1.gov (Loren I. Petrich) writes:
> The subject should be self-explanatory. And if sequences are
>not available, what about maps of all reading frames?
Funny you should ask -- I just got back from "Genome Mapping and
Sequencing IV". First, the prehistory.
Currently available complete sequences:
Plasmids -- oodles
Bacteriophage -- lots, including M13, T7, and lambda
Eukaryotic viruses -- polio, vaccinia, HIV
Chloroplast -- liverwort, tobacco, rice, beechdrops
Plant mitochondrial -- liverwort (Chlamydomonas? -- I'm not sure)
Animal mitochondrial -- lots, including human, mouse, cow,
sea urchin, several insects, several nematodes.
I think that covers most of the important ones -- hope I didn't omit
Anyway, current statuses for some major sequencing efforts.
E.coli -- about 50% complete
Mycobacterium leprae -- about 1% complete, but most during last year
Mycoplasma capricolum -- about 1% complete, but most of
that done in last 6 months.
If current plans hold, all three bacteria will be done in about 3 years
(I know, that doesn't quite fit the above arithmetic).
Saccharomyces -- one chromosome done, two more almost done,
completion before end of decade.
C.elegans -- first megabase of contiguous sequence almost done
Drosophila -- largest reported contiguous sequence is about 80 Kbp
Mammals -- several 100 Kb segments done in human and mouse,
but there's lots left to do.
Arabidopsis -- a few cosmid-sized (50Kb) segments done.
Mapping is further along. Complete maps exist for many bacteria and
C.elegans (and Saccharomyces?). A map for Schizosaccharomyces is near
completion (I think -- nobody from that community spoke). Large maps
of human Y (complete) and 21 (long arm) chromosomes were just published.
So, we have to wait another three years-ish to get the first complete
cellular genome. And without technological improvements, mammalian
genomes are going to finished in the distant future -- it would take
over 100,000 worker years to do one mammalian genome at current rates.
Department of Cellular & Developmental Biology
Department of Genetics / HHMI
robison at ribo.harvard.edu
More information about the Mol-evol