Alu sequences and human evolution

FOSTERCMD fostercmd at aol.com
Thu Jul 21 19:05:02 EST 1994


In article <30fhlj$7vf at search01.news.aol.com>, fostercmd at aol.com
(FOSTERCMD) writes:

any references on HERV's?  

I have answered my own question by doing a medline search on HERVs.
Attached are the most recent citations.  Please review them with me so
that
further discussions concerning ALU sequences and human evolution can
be based on scientific data and less on belief.  However, keep in mind
that
the underlying postulate that I am evaluating (and which has been proposed
by
others, ie see citation   22  ) is that the fossil record punctuations in
mammalian/primate/human evolution may be related to a combination of
cataclysms associated with epidemics  of  retroposon/retroviral
integrations
into germline cells resulting in the rapid creation of new species.  I
would
like to know if the repetitive sequence family such as Alu and LH1 are
remnant
LTRS of  species creating/ "informationally mutagenic"  viruses. I
understand
that a portion of  these sequences appear to have "evolved" from 7SRNA .Is
this "evolution" divergent, convergent, coincidental,  or does it suggest
a common origin of 7SRNA and retroviral RNA. 
     I also would like to ask everyone to have an open but critical mind
concerning
the developing field of exobiology.  Try not to dismiss some of its ideas
just because it creates more questions than it answers. It is known that
at least
a million tons of material arrive to earth from space every day mostly
in the form of IDPs (interplanetary dust particles).  Science knows very
little
about these particles and it has not yet been ruled out / in that some 
may be
viral.  

Search request: F KW HERV 
Search result:  21 citations in the Medline database

1. Brodsky I; Foley B; Gillespie D.
     Expression of human endogenous retrovirus (HERV-K) in
chronic myeloid leukemia.
   Leukemia and Lymphoma, 1993, 11 Suppl 1:119-23.
     ABSTRACT available.  (UI:  94073013)
     Pub type:  Journal Article; Review; Review, Tutorial.

2. Zhu ZB; Jian B; Volanakis JE.
     Ancestry of SINE-R.C2 a human-specific retroposon.
   Human Genetics, 1994 May, 93(5):545-51.
     ABSTRACT available.  (UI:  94222421)

3. Simon M; Haltmeier M; Papakonstantinou G; Werner T; Hehlmann
R; Leib-Mosch C.
     Transcription of HERV-K-related LTRs in human placenta and
leukemic cells.
   Leukemia, 1994 Apr, 8 Suppl 1:S12-7.
     ABSTRACT available.  (UI:  94202933)

4. Leib-Mosch C; Haltmeier M; Werner T; Geigl EM; Brack-Werner R;
Francke U;Erfle V; Hehlmann R.
     Genomic distribution and transcription of solitary HERV-K
LTRs.
   Genomics, 1993 Nov, 18(2):261-9.
     ABSTRACT available.  (UI:  94116992)

5. Sedlacek Z; Korn B; Konecki DS; Siebenhaar R; Coy JF; Kioschis
P; Poustka A.
     Construction of a transcription map of a 300 kb region
around the human
     G6PD locus by direct cDNA selection.
   Human Molecular Genetics, 1993 Nov, 2(11):1865-9.
     ABSTRACT available.  (UI:  94108440)


6. Boller K; Konig H; Sauter M; Mueller-Lantzsch N; Lower R;
Lower J; Kurth R.
     Evidence that HERV-K is the endogenous retrovirus sequence
that codes for the human teratocarcinoma-derived retrovirus HTDV.
   Virology, 1993 Sep, 196(1):349-53.
     ABSTRACT available.  (UI:  93362427)

7. Vogetseder W; Dumfahrt A; Mayersbach P; Schonitzer D; Dierich
MP.
     Antibodies in human sera recognizing a recombinant outer
membrane protein encoded by the envelope gene of the human
endogenous retrovirus K.
   Aids Research and Human Retroviruses, 1993 Jul, 9(7):687-94.
     ABSTRACT available.  (UI:  93378791)

8. Lower R; Boller K; Hasenmaier B; Korbmacher C; Muller-Lantzsch
N; Lower J; Kurth R.
     Identification of human endogenous retroviruses with complex
mRNA expression and particle formation.
   Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United
States of America, 1993 May 15, 90(10):4480-4.
     ABSTRACT available.  (UI:  93281603)

9. Brodsky I; Foley B; Haines D; Johnston J; Cuddy K; Gillespie
D.
     Expression of HERV-K proviruses in human leukocytes.
   Blood, 1993 May 1, 81(9):2369-74.
     ABSTRACT available.  (UI:  93244430)


10. Mueller-Lantzsch N; Sauter M; Weiskircher A; Kramer K; Best
B; Buck M; Grasser F.
      Human endogenous retroviral element K10 (HERV-K10) encodes
a full-length gag homologous 73-kDa protein and a functional
protease.
    Aids Research and Human Retroviruses, 1993 Apr, 9(4):343-50.
      ABSTRACT available.  (UI:  93290929)

11. Lower R; Lower J; Tondera-Koch C; Kurth R.
      A general method for the identification of transcribed
retrovirus sequences (R-U5 PCR) reveals the expression of the
human endogenous retrovirus loci HERV-H and HERV-K in
teratocarcinoma cells.
    Virology, 1993 Feb, 192(2):501-11.
      ABSTRACT available.  (UI:  93134794)


12. Medstrand P; Lindeskog M; Blomberg J.
      Expression of human endogenous retroviral sequences in
peripheral blood mononuclear cells of healthy individuals.
    Journal of General Virology, 1992 Sep, 73 ( Pt 9):2463-6.
      ABSTRACT available.  (UI:  93019075)

13. Zhu ZB; Hsieh SL; Bentley DR; Campbell RD; Volanakis JE.
      A variable number of tandem repeats locus within the human
complement C2 gene is associated with a retroposon derived from a
human endogenous
      retrovirus.
    Journal of Experimental Medicine, 1992 Jun 1, 175(6):1783-7.
      ABSTRACT available.  (UI:  92268827)

14. Sugino H; Oshimura M; Matsubara K.
      Banding profiles of LTR of human endogenous retrovirus
HERV-A in 24 chromosomes in somatic cell hybrids.
    Genomics, 1992 Jun, 13(2):461-4.
      ABSTRACT available.  (UI:  92307689)

15. Shih A; Coutavas EE; Rush MG.
      Evolutionary implications of primate endogenous
retroviruses.
    Virology, 1991 Jun, 182(2):495-502.
      ABSTRACT available.  (UI:  91220699)

16. Nakamura N; Sugino H; Takahara K; Jin C; Fukushige S;
Matsubara K.
      Endogenous retroviral LTR DNA sequences as markers for
individual human chromosomes.
    Cytogenetics and Cell Genetics, 1991, 57(1):18-22.
      ABSTRACT available.  (UI:  91309404)

17. Ono M.
      Molecular biology of type A endogenous retrovirus.
    Kitasato Archives of Experimental Medicine, 1990 Sep,
63(2-3):77-90.
      ABSTRACT available.  (UI:  91259898)
      Pub type:  Journal Article; Review; Review, Academic.

18. Kato N; Shimotohno K; VanLeeuwen D; Cohen M.
      Human proviral mRNAs down regulated in choriocarcinoma
encode a zinc finger protein related to Kruppel.
    Molecular and Cellular Biology, 1990 Aug, 10(8):4401-5.
      ABSTRACT available.  (UI:  90318410)


19. Kambhu S; Falldorf P; Lee JS.
      Endogenous retroviral long terminal repeats within the
HLA-DQ locus.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United
States of America, 1990 Jul, 87(13):4927-31.
      ABSTRACT available.  (UI:  90311316)

20. Liu QR; Chan PK.
      Identification of a long stretchof Homopurine.
homopyrimidine sequence in a cluster of retroposons in the human
genome.
    Journal of Molecular Biology, 1990 Apr 5, 212(3):453-9.
      ABSTRACT available.  (UI:  90219017)


21. Tomita N; Horii A; Doi S; Yokouchi H; Ogawa M; Mori T;
Matsubara K.
      Transcription of human endogenous retroviral long terminal
repeat (LTR) sequence in a lung cancer cell line.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 1990 Jan

22. Harris JR.
      The evolution of placental mammals.
    Febs Letters, 1991 Dec 16, 295(1-3):3-4.
      (UI:  92111751)
      Pub type:  Journal Article; Review; Review, Tutorial.

Abstract: Based on morphological, virological, biochemical and
molecular
    biological data, it is proposed that the presence of
endogenous retrovirus
    particles in the placental cytotrophoblasts of many mammals
is indicative of
    some beneficial action provided by the virus in relation to
cell fusion,
    syncytiotrophoblast formation and the creation of the
placenta. Further, it
    is hypothesised that the germ line retroviral infection of
some primitive
    mammal-like species resulted in the evolution of the
placental mammals.





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