Know Any Evolution Books?

R M Bernstein ralph at ccit.arizona.edu
Wed Mar 20 03:03:17 EST 1996


In Article <4indc8$6kh at tricia.msn.fullfeed.com>, Periannan Senapathy
<sena at genome.com> wrote:
>> > Modern molecular biology provides ample evidence for the new
>> > theory.  Recent discoveries of many unique genes in distinct
>> > organisms that are totally absent in other organisms provide the
>> > best evidence.
>> 
>> Example, please? How do we know they aren't present elsewhere?
>
>One example is the blood plasma proteins of the vertebrates 
>(more than 600 of them), which are totally absent in all the 
>invertebrates.  The proteins of the generically called "blood" 
>of different invertebrates have, on the other hand, nothing 
>to do with the blood of the vertebrates.  Also, the "blood" 
>of the different groups of invertebrates (the creatures 
>belonging to the different phyla, for example) are unrelatable.  
>Please note that these proteins in the blood (or the circulating 
>fluid) of a creature are synthesized by many organs and tissues 
>within a creature.  Moreover, the cells and proteins of the immune 
                                ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
>system, blood clotting system, respiratory system, and digestion, 
^^^^^^^^^
>and preception etc.  are also unrelatable among these distinct 
>creatures.  


^^^i think that this came up before.  you are really generalizing here.  as
i (and others?) have said before (? early 1995), there _are_ "immune system"
proteins such as CRP, the pentaxins, some compliment components and some ig
superfamily members that are conserved throughout evolution, i.e. through
out the protostomes and deuterostomes.  neither you nor jeff mattox every
responded to any of the evolutionary evidence that i gave you guys.  just
try looking this stuff up.  (see below)

now, the "vertebrate-type" immune system arose about 450-500 mya in the
cartalagenous sharks, or their immediate ancestors.  only _jawed_
vertebrates have rearranging antibodies/tcr's.  this defines the vertebrate
type immune response.  the more basic components, eg compliment, have been
around for along time.  eric davidson's group just identified compliment
homologues in sea urchin, a deuterostome.  (JI 1996, 156:593-602).  from the
sharks "on-up" the immune system is present and _essentially_ identical. 
sharks, frogs, goats and pigs all have tcrs and ig.  there are really only a
few "minor" differences between them, like isotype switching and genomic
organisation.  

for comprehensive review see: 

Schluter SF.  Schroeder J.  Wang E.  Marchalonis JJ.                       *
Institution                                                                *
University of Arizona, College of Medicine, Tucson 85724.                  *
Title                                                                      *
Recognition molecules and immunoglobulin domains in invertebrates.         *
Source                                                                     *
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences.  712:74-81, 1994 Apr 15.       *
Abbreviated Source                                                         *
Ann N Y Acad Sci.  712:74-81, 1994 Apr 15.                                 *
 
and/ or

Marchalonis JJ.  Schluter SF.                                              *
Institution                                                                 *
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Arizona, College  *
of Medicine, Tucson 85724.                                                 *
Title                                                                       *
Development of an immune system. [Review]                                  *
Source                                                                      *
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences.  712:1-12, 1994 Apr 15.        *
Abbreviated Source                                                          *
Ann N Y Acad Sci.  712:1-12, 1994 Apr 15.       


and/ or

Marchalonis JJ.  Schluter SF.                                              *
Institution                                                                 *
University Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of        *
Arizona, Tucson 85724.                                                     *
Title                                                                       *
Immunoproteins in evolution. [Review]                                      *
Source                                                                      *
Developmental & Comparative Immunology.  13(4):285-301, 1989 Fall.         *
Abbreviated Source                                                          *
Dev Comp Immunol.  13(4):285-301, 1989 Fall.        
        
and for vdj recombination see:

Thompson CB.                                                               *
Institution                                                                 *
Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Medicine, Gwen Knapp Center *
for Lupus and Immunology Research, University of Chicago, Illinois 60637,  *
USA.                                                                       *
Title                                                                       *
New insights into V(D)J recombination and its role in the evolution of the *
immune system. [Review]                                                    *
Source                                                                     
* Immunity.  3(5):531-9, 1995 Nov.                                           *
Abbreviated Source                                                          *
Immunity.  3(5):531-9, 1995 Nov.                   

>> >  The sudden appearance of almost all the distinct organisms
>> > belonging to all the different phyla in a geological instant at the
>> > base of the Cambrian period, termed the Cambrian Explosion,
>> > has not been explainable by the theory of evolution.  The new
>> > mechanism in fact predicts this scenario. 
>> 
>> I'm confused - if "higher taxa" have been around since very early, why
>> is there no early fossil record for them? 
>
>
>Precisely!  Your question is perfectly valid.  Fossil record 
>actually shows evidence of the presence of all the higher taxa 
>from the very beginning of the multicellular life on earth.  
>


no. it doesn't.  see:

1. Romer, A.S. (1966) Vertebrate Paleontology.  (University of Chicago
Press, Chicago, IL).

ralph

R.M. Bernstein
Dept of Micro/Immuno
University of Arizona
Ph: 602 626 2585
Fx: 602 626 2100
url: http://lamprey.medmicro.arizona.edu
     http://radon.gas.uug.arizona.edu/~bernster



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