free energy news (measurements results)
Stefan Hartmann
leo at zelator.uucp
Mon May 20 14:35:17 EST 1991
Workshop for decentral energy research e.V. proudly presents:
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* How to win FREE energy with an *
* Adiabatic-isochoric-adiabatic-isochoric cycle over labile states of the *
* P-V-diagram *
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from B.Schaeffer and W.D.Bauer
DKOWA Gmbh
Pasewaldtstr.7 W-1000 Berlin 37, Germany
keywords:
free energy, violation of the second law of thermodynamics,
spontaneous condensation,thermodynamic cycle, second law of thermodynamics
Abstract:
Measurements with a benzene-water mixture at 154 deegrees Celsius show that
a adiabatic-isochoric-adiabatic-isochoric cycle through the supersaturated
states of the vapour phase during expansion allows a machine to be built, which
in contrary to an equilibrium cycle does not need two temperature poles,
but only one.
Other substances will be proposed, which allow the same process to proceed at
environmental temperatures.
Thus it will be possible to build a refrigirator which produces electrical
power when operated !
1.Introduction
The concept of entropy was created by R.Clausius. He showed that the expression
for the entropy
dS=dQ/T=(dU+PdV)/T
applied to an ideal gas leads to the result that S is a potential.
With the development of the first real equations of state the usual concept of
entropy was again introduced. However, in deriving thermodynamic potentials
the assumption was then built into the theory that the entropy has to be a
potential[1]. Regarding dynamic phenomena of phase transitions (for instance
spontaneous condensation), however, the potential concept of entropy becomes
senseless, because the labile states a gas can reach with a fast adiabatic
expansion do not fulfil a unique equation of state. Thus, the thermodynamic
potentials become ambiguous and lose the mathematical character of a potential.
Therefore, the question arises, whether the second law of thermodynamics
(in the versions of Planck[2] and Caratheodory[3]) remains valid for labile
states. We will answer this question in this article empirically with
a clear NO !
2.Experimental procedure
In order to test the dynamic P-V-behaviour of vapours as working media in
machines we built an apparatus, which consisted of a cylinder with a movable
piston, see fig.1. The diameter of the piston was 10 cm. The starting volume
was 10 cm3 ,the end point volume was 1200 cm3. At the entry of the cylinder
there was a valve, which opened and closed the conduit pipe from the boiler
which contained a heating coil with a maximum power of 300 W. The fluid
(300 cm3 benzene (Merck), 3 l bidistilled water) was cycled continously
through glass beads in order to get a uniform evaporation of the non-miscible
fluids, see fig.1. Boiler and cylinder were embedded in a heat insulation.
The piston of the cylinder was driven by a second larger piston moving in a
cylinder(diameter 14 cm), whose pressure was delivered from a 12 bar compressor.
The velocity of compression could be regulated by needle valves in the exhausts
of both sides of the driving cylinder. The housing of the cylinder with the
smaller piston was thermostated by cycling the fluid of the boiler through it
with a pump. The difference in temperature between inlet and outlet was about
0.1 degrees Celsius. The temperature of the lid of the cylinder could be
regulated separately by a thermostated electric heating of maximal 100 W power.
Cooling down could be improved by removing the heat insulation.
In order to measure the pressure a fast piezoelectric sensor was
built into the lid of the cylinder. It showed maximum deviations
of 0.01 bar when measuring the adiabate of air.
Data collection and regulation of the apparatus were achieved with a personal
computer.
3.Measurement
At a fixed temperature of 154 degrees Celsius and a pressure of 11.4 bar the
starting point was set. Then the valve to the cylinder was closed and the
piston was expanded over about 0.3 sec, see fig.2. First the pressure went down
and then rose again to a certain level with an increase in volume. In most cases
a maximum was reached and the
curve went slowly down until it reached the end point.
At the end point of the expansion a pause interval of 3 sec was
set. This time was the optimum to get a maximum decrease in pressure about
4 bar.
Then the piston was recompressed in a time of 0.3 sec and reached
again the starting volume. The pressure at this point was slightly
higher than the starting volume, but decayed and reached again the
starting level after some seconds. The net work area of this cycle was
typically 200-300 J.
A necessary condition to get these results was that the lid of the cylinder
was cooler than the housing (optimum difference 4 degrees Celsius).
Performing periodically cycles with the cylinder closed the net work area
decreased in time, but after refreshing the vapour by opening the valves of
the cylinder the higher values could be achieved again.
4.Discussion
a)experimental
Our apparatus has the disadvantage that the pressure of the cycle can not be
measured under conditions when the pressure is higher than the starting
pressure. Nevertheless, it can be shown that with this cycle a net work yield
is obtained.
If we assume that the pressure of the working medium before reaching the end
point would be so high that the work area becomes zero or even reverses sign,
then the excess pressure pex can be estimated from the formula
pex=work area/(vB-vA). Inserting values from fig.2 (work area 452 J,vB-vA=30cm3)
we get an excess pressure pex of over 100 bar. This would overcome the driving
compressor or would exceed the absolute maximum ratings of the apparatus which
is designed for a maximum pressure of 20 bar. Neither is the case. It can also
be shown that the small temperature gradient in the cylinder cannot be
responsible for the work produced in the cycle. If we assume that the cycle is
driven by this difference T1-T2 it would have an efficiency | of
| = (Q2-Q1)/Q2 = (T2-T1)/T2 = -W/Q2 ,
where Q1/2 are the heats and T1/2 temperatures and -W the work.
Then our machine would have an efficiency | of |< 1%. This means for the cycle
of fig.2 that heat amounts of at least Q2>45.2KJ and Q1<-44.75KJ would be
exchanged between the wall and the working medium (mass<10 g) in about 4 sec.
These amounts of heat are enough to heat up or to cool down the temperature of
the fluid of the whole boiler (mass=3.3 kg) by about 3 oC, where we assumed,
that the temperature change could proceed during the cycle in 4 sec instead of
some minutes as actually observed by the temperature detection system of the
thermostat (sampling time 1 sec) in the lid. Both heatings of our system
(together max. 400 W) are too weak to compensate such amounts of heat in these
times.
The temperature difference works as a cooling trap collecting fluid in the
cylinder and is responsible for the point where the evaporation begins in the
expansion phase, but has nothing to do with the production of work in the sense
of a Carnot cycle.
Even if we accept the opinion that the work is due to the temperature
difference, then the observed over-Carnot efficiency means that, according to
the considerations of the Carnot theorem, in a machine this temperature
difference could be maintained by a part of the work the machine delivers [1].
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