40-Hz oscillations

Michael Hucka hucka at engin.umich.edu
Mon Jun 7 04:52:38 EST 1993


For folks interested in learning more about the 40 Hz oscillations in visual
cortex such as found by Singer, Eckhorn and others, I would like to offer a
few useful references.  This is not an exhaustive list by any means.

Stryker's article is a short (2 pages), concise and excellent summary of the
experimental work on oscillations in the visual cortex, and some of the
interpretations, such as the oscillation's possible function as a feature
binding mechanism.

@ARTICLE{stryker:91,
    AUTHOR = {Michael P. Stryker},
    TITLE = {Seeing the Whole Picture},
    JOURNAL = {Current Biology},
    YEAR = 1991,
    VOLUME = {1},
    NUMBER = {4},
    PAGES = {252--253},
}

The two articles below provide detailed results of studies by Gray & Singer's
group.  They are useful reading for anyone trying to understand the details
of their findings.

@ARTICLE{gray:90,
    AUTHOR = {Charles M. Gray and Andreas K. Engel and Peter K\"onig and Wolf Singer},
    TITLE = {Stimulus-Dependent Neuronal Oscillations in Cat Visual Cortex:
Receptive Field Properties and Feature Dependence},
    JOURNAL = {European Journal of Neuroscience},
    YEAR = 1990,
    VOLUME = {2},
    PAGES = {607--619},
}

@ARTICLE{engel:90,
    AUTHOR = {Andreas K. Engel and Peter K\"onig and Charles W. Gray and Wolf Singer},
    TITLE = {Stimulus-Dependent Neuronal Oscillations in Cat Visual Cortex:  
Inter-Columnar Interaction as Determined by Cross-Correlation Analysis},
    JOURNAL = {European Journal of Neuroscience},
    YEAR = 1990,
    VOLUME = {2},
    PAGES = {588--606},
}

In this next article by Kreiter & Singer, they report results of experiments
performed on monkeys.  It turns out that the characteristics of the
oscillations in the primary visual cortex there are significantly different
from those found in the cat.

@ARTICLE{kreiter:92,
    AUTHOR = {A. K. Kreiter and W. Singer},
    TITLE = {Oscillatory Neuronal Responses in the Visual Cortex of the Awake
Macaque Monkey},
    JOURNAL = {European Journal of Neuroscience},
    YEAR = 1992,
    VOLUME = {4},
    PAGES = {369--375},
}

This next article is an excellent general review of all the work in this area
(well, up to the publication date).  Eckhorn summarizes most of the results
by his group and by others, provides some interpretations, and also describes
a neural network simulation model.  Contains a lot of references.

@INCOLLECTION{eckhorn:91,
    AUTHOR = {Reinhard Eckhorn},
    TITLE = {Stimulus-Specific Synchronizations in the Visual Cortex:  Linking of Local \
Features into Global Features?},
    BOOKTITLE = {Neuronal Cooperativity},
    PUBLISHER = {Springer-Verlag},
    YEAR = 1991,
    EDITOR = {J. Kr\"uger},
    CHAPTER = {9},
    PAGES = {184--224},
    ADDRESS = {Berlin},
}

This next article by Eckhorn et al. discusses their simulation studies in
somewhat more detail.

@ARTICLE{eckhorn:90,
    AUTHOR = {R. Eckhorn and H.J. Reitb\"ock and M. Arndt and P. Dicke},
    TITLE = {Feature Linking via Synchronization among Distributed
Assemblies:  Simulations of Results from Cat Visual Cortex},
    JOURNAL = {Neural Computation},
    YEAR = 1990,
    VOLUME = {2},
    PAGES = {293--307},
}

This next item is another general review of the various results, this time by
Singer.

@INCOLLECTION{singer:91,
    AUTHOR = {Wolf Singer},
    TITLE = {The Formation of Cooperative Cell Assemblies in the Visual Cortex},
    BOOKTITLE = {Neuronal Cooperativity},
    PUBLISHER = {Springer-Verlag},
    YEAR = 1991,
    EDITOR = {J. Kr\"uger},
    CHAPTER = {8},
    PAGES = {165--183},
    ADDRESS = {Berlin},
}

There is quite a lot of doubt about the significance of the synchronizations
found in the visual cortex of cats and monkeys.  Although the data are good,
what the data *mean* has apparently not been settled.  For example, Koch &
Schuster have produced a simulation that produces synchronization effects
from noise inputs:

@ARTICLE{koch:92,
    AUTHOR = {Christof Koch and Heinz Schuster},
    TITLE = {A Simple Network Showing Burst Synchronization without
Frequency Locking},
    JOURNAL = {Neural Computation},
    YEAR = 1992,
    VOLUME = {4},
    PAGES = {211--223}
}

I don't have a good list of articles that are critical about the
synchronization results; the above is the only one that comes to mind right
now. 

Finally, below are just a few more articles related to simulations of
sychronization and related phenomena:

@ARTICLE{softky:92,
    AUTHOR = {William R. Softky and Christof Koch},
    TITLE = {Cortical Cells Should Fire Regularly, But Do Not},
    JOURNAL = {Neural Computation},
    YEAR = 1992,
    VOLUME = {4},
    PAGES = {643--646}
}

@ARTICLE{bush:91,
    AUTHOR = {Paul C. Bush and Rodney J. Douglas},
    TITLE = {Synchronization of Bursting Action Potential Discharge in a
Model Network of Neocortical Neurons},
    JOURNAL = {Neural Computation},
    YEAR = 1991,
    VOLUME = {3},
    PAGES = {19--30}
}

@ARTICLE{sompolinsky:90,
    AUTHOR = {H. Sompolinsky and D. Golomb and D. Kleinfeld},
    TITLE = {Global Procesing of Visual Stimuli in a Neural Network of
Coupled Oscillators},
    JOURNAL = {Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.~S.~A.},
    YEAR = 1990,
    VOLUME = {87},
    PAGES = {7200-7204},
    MONTH = SEP,
}

@TECHREPORT{sompolinsky:90a,
    AUTHOR = {H. Sompolinsky and D. Golomb and D. Kleinfeld},
    TITLE = {Phase Coherence and Computation in a Neural Network of
Coupled Oscillators},
    INSTITUTION = {AT\&T Bell Laboratories},
    YEAR = 1990,
    TYPE = {Technical Memorandum},
    NUMBER = {11116-900730-16},
}

@TECHREPORT{sompolinsky:90b,
    AUTHOR = {H. Sompolinsky and D. Golomb and D. Kleinfeld},
    TITLE = {Cooperative Dynamics in Visual Processing
    INSTITUTION = {AT\&T Bell Laboratories},
    YEAR = 1990,
    TYPE = {Technical Memorandum},
    NUMBER = {11111-900730-47},
}

In addition, see the article in Scientific American, Sept. 1992, by Francis
Crick and Christof Koch.
--
-- Mike
_____________________________________________________________________________
Mike Hucka                     | Internet: hucka at engin.umich.edu    
University of Michigan AI Lab  | 1101 Beal Ave., Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2110



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