First use of T-maze?

Howard Crosby Warren crosby at
Sat Jan 22 02:59:33 EST 1994

In article <2hpbbv$3k8 at>,
W. Jeffrey Wilson <Wjeffrey.Wilson at> wrote:
>Small (_Amer. J. Psychol._, 1901, _12_, 206-239) gives the first reference
>of which I am aware for the use of a maze for studying behavior in the
>rat.  Who was the first to use a T-maze?  Any leads or references will be
>appreciated.  Please email me at the address given below.  Thanks!

I really don't have any extensive materials on mazes handy, so I am
more or less posting this from memory.  I know that Yerkes used a
T-maze with the earthworm in 1912 (Yerkes, R.M. (1912)  The intelligence
of earthworms.  Journal of Animal Behavior, 2, 332-352), but that
seems rather late.  You might try the review by Dember & Fowler (Psych
Bull, 1958), but I'm not sure if it has any historical notes.

A wonderful piece on the history of the maze is Olton's article
(Olton, D.S. (1979).  Mazes, maps, and memory.  American Psychologist,
34, 583-596).

By the way, I've seen an earlier Small article:  Small, W.S. (1900).
An experimental study of the mental processes of the rat.  American
Journal of Psychology, 11, 133-165.  Also, mazes were, of course, used
with lower animals at least several years before Small's experiments.

By the way, I've 

Howard Crosby Warren				crosby at
Department of Psychology
The Johns Hopkins University

More information about the Neur-sci mailing list