Here is the Fromherz reference and its short abstract:
Fromherz P; Offenhausser A; Vetter T; Weis J.
A neuron-silicon junction: a Retzius cell of the leech on an
insulated-gate field-effect transistor.
Science, 1991 May 31, 252(5010):1290-3.
Abstract: An identified neuron of the leech, a Retzius cell, has been
attached to the open gate of a p-channel field-effect transistor.
Action potentials, spontaneous or stimulated, modulate directly the
source-drain current in silicon.
The electronic signals match the shape of the action potential.
The average voltage on the gate was up to 25 percent of the intracellular
voltage change. Occasionally weak signals that resemble the first
derivative of the action potential were observed. The junctions can be
described by a model that includes capacitive coupling of the plasma
membrane and the gate oxide and that accounts for variable resistance of
Brooke Paul | bpaul at darwin
Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology | .bio
UCI-Dept. of Psychobiology | .uci
Irvine, Ca. 92717-4330 | .edu