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Wetware/Cyborg? [references]

Brooke Paul bpaul at banting.bio.uci.edu
Fri May 13 12:45:32 EST 1994

	Here is the Fromherz reference and its short abstract:

   Fromherz P; Offenhausser A; Vetter T; Weis J.
     A neuron-silicon junction: a Retzius cell of the leech on an
     insulated-gate field-effect transistor.
   Science, 1991 May 31, 252(5010):1290-3.
     (UI:  92022518)

Abstract: An identified neuron of the leech, a Retzius cell, has been 
    attached to the open gate of a p-channel field-effect transistor.
    Action potentials, spontaneous or stimulated, modulate directly the 
    source-drain current in silicon.
	 The electronic signals match the shape of the action potential.
    The average voltage on the gate was up to 25 percent of the intracellular
    voltage change. Occasionally weak signals that resemble the first
    derivative of the action potential were observed. The junctions can be
    described by a model that includes capacitive coupling of the plasma
    membrane and the gate oxide and that accounts for variable resistance of
    the seal.                           

Brooke Paul                                       | bpaul at darwin
Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology |         .bio
UCI-Dept. of Psychobiology                        |         .uci
Irvine, Ca.  92717-4330                           |         .edu

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