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Keneth Grandchamp grandcha at cmu.unige.ch
Mon Nov 13 10:13:43 EST 1995

Cannabinoids receptors and schizophrenia:From Haschich to Schizophrenia
Apparently,no research yet has been made concerning the involvement of 
cannabinoids receptors and schizophrenia.However,direct introspective 
observations with Cannabis sativa,together with theoretical considerations 
about thoughts abnormality in schizophrenics,lead to the strong feeling that 
anandamide(or other similar endogenous 
cannabinoid-mimetics)is,definitely,involved in the disturbed thought process 
of schizophrenics.Especially,anandamide function should be disturbed in the 
hippocampus and in other
 areas involved in memory or recall(the hippocampus is a structure of 
convergence where stored memories in different parts of the brain converge in 
order to be recalled.The hippocampus is essential for remembering,not for 
memorising per se).
Cannabinoids induce a phenomenon called "illusion" which is something 
completely distinct from hallucinations.Illusions are the main phenomena which 
give rise to the peculiar thinking of schizophrenics.

The Illusionised Consciousness or the Schizophrenic Mind
In I845,Dr Joseph Moreau de Tours published his famous book about haschich and 
madness under the title:Du Haschich et de l'Aliénation Mentale(Masson,Paris 
This book was translated into English only in the I97O's through Raven 
Press,if my memory is correct.
Moreau de Tours was a real savant,a man curious about everything and willing 
to test "experimental madness", induced by haschich, in order to try to 
understand real madness.
His book has been unequaled ,as far as introspection is concerned.With this 
book Joseph Moreau de Tours became the father of introspective 
psychopharmacology.Unfortunately,he did not have many spiritual sons in this 
field until now,as some "scientists" think that rats and mice can better 
report what they feel under psychotropic drugs!
Moreau de Tours ,accurately ,perceived that haschich had something to do with 
real madness because haschich can induce illusions.So what are illusions?
Illusion is a state of consciousness where exogenous perceived informational 
patterns are wrongly identified by memory.This error of identification leads 
to false recognition of exogenous patterns which,in turn,leads to false 
consciousness of events.The phenomenon of illusion can make us 
conscious,"aware",of things which are non-existent in the exogenous 
reality(exoreality)! It is through this phenomenon that a schizophrenic can 
correctly perceive an outside person but wrongly identify this person as som
eone else like,let say,Napoléon or the Virgin Mary,etc.Illusions should not be 
confused with hallucinations as these phenomena are completely 
different.Hallucinations alone are not sufficient to transform a normal person 
into a schizophrenic while illusions are sufficient per se.To be crazy you 
just need to be illusionised! As the stimulation of cannabinoid receptors lead 
to illusions,it is then very logical to deduce that anandamide(and related 
endogenous compounds)should play a crucial role in schizoph
renia.This remains to be investigated but I have no doubt that indeed 
disturbances of anandamide functions will be found in schizophrenics.As 
illusions are also very common in normal dreams,anandamide metabolism in the 
dream state should be different from anandamide metabolism in the waking 
state.New medications blocking the action of anandamide on cannabinoid 
receptors could well be novel antipsychotics!

Claude Rifat(using Ken Grandchamp account)

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