electromagnetic/brain waves

Zamanlf zamanlf at aol.com
Wed Apr 3 12:34:53 EST 1996


Mark,

	Here is an exerpt from Verzeano’s summary of his research found in
The Neural Control of Behavior, edited by RE Whalen, RF Thompson, M
Verzeano and NM Weinberger, Academic Press, 1970:

	“One of the most remarkable of these findings is the consistency
of the relations between the first derivative of the gross response and
the probability of neuronal discharge, in so many locations and under so
many different conditions: in the lateral geniculate body, the primary and
secondary visual cortex, the auditory system; in wakefulness or sleep; at
low or high intensities of stimulation. This widespread distribution and
this remarkable consistency, suggest that these relations are based on
fundamental neural processes and have an important physiological
significance.
	“Another remarkable finding is that the relations between the
first derivative of the gross response and the probability of neuronal
discharge still hold, even when the magnitude, the configuration, or the
polarity of the gross response change, with the displacement of the
microelectrode through the tissue. Since the tip of a microelectrode of
the type used in these experiments surveys a territory approximately 200
microns in diameter, and since the same tip records both the gross waves
and the neuronal activity from the very same territory, it may be
concluded that the relations between the two are based in processes which
occur locally, in the immediate vicinity of the tip, and not on processes
which occur at large distances from one another, some at the surface of
the tissue, some within its depth.
	“The fact that the greatest probabilities of discharge, in the
time histograms of neuronal activity occur at progressively later times
and decrease progressively in magnitude for spikes of progressively higher
amplitudes..., suggests that a convergence of activity over neural
elements of progressively increasing size and decreasing number may be
involved in these processes; and the fact that consecutive phases of the
gross response correspond to consecutive periods of enhanced and reduced
neuronal activity..., suggests that a chain of successive phases of
excitation and inhibition develop within the neuronal territory from which
these phenomena are recorded. The data available at present do not allow
the identification of the neural events responsible for each particular
phase. It is evident, however, that the activity of synaptic, dendritic,
somatic and perhaps other neural elements must participate in the
development of this convergence and in the distribution of excitation and
inhibition through the neuronal territory, and it is probable that the
interactions between these activities result in relations involving rates
of change.....
	“In order to understand certain physical phenomena, it is
necessary to view them from the point of view of single particle physics,
as well as from the point of view of statistical mechanics and quantum
mechanics. By analogy...., in order to understand certain
neurophysiological and psychological phenomena it is necessary to to study
them from the point of view of the statistical aspects of multineuronal
activity.
	“The findings presented in this report give additional support to
these concepts of nervous function, and lead to the conclusion that the
statistical study of network dynamics should prove a valuable method of
neurophysiological and psychological investigation.”


	Verzeano’s paper, Evoked Responses and Network Dynamics, and the
discussion afterward is found on pages 27-54 and 65-74 respectively. A
related paper by RF Thompson, Relations between Evoked Gross and Unit
Activity in Association Cortex of Waking Cat, is found on pages 55-62. A
supporting comment by NM Weinberger is found on pages 63-64. His paper
gives 14 references to his earlier work, in the years 1954-1967. He also
published other papers on this subject in the years following, from
1968-1981.

	I would also think that Verzeano’s work would be of great interest
to many neuroscientists, and that his work (in my estimation) indeed
deserves a Nobel prize (he retired in 1981). It was my initial perception,
and remains so to this day, that the statistical relations he discovered,
between the axon spike and synaptic wave activities of the central nervous
system, is the Rosetta Stone through which the fundamental principles
governing nervous system dynamics can be discovered.

	I talked with him briefly shortly after he retired. I do not know
if he is still living or not. At that time he was at the following
address:

Dr. Marcel Verzeano
265 Murphy GLC Road
Rogue River Drive
Ashland, Oregon 97537
Tel: 1-503-482-4681

I do not know how current any of this information is. I am sure he would
appreciate hearing from you.


Fred Zaman




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