Abstracts Ginkgo Biloba>>>(long)

EGanz eganz at aol.com
Thu Apr 4 13:05:55 EST 1996

                                            Misc Abstacts (Ginkgo Biloba)
U Grassel-E.
IN Abteilung fur Medizinische Psychologie und Psychopathometrie,
TI [Effect of *Ginkgo-biloba* extract on mental performance.  Double-blind
   study using computerized measurement conditions in patients with
   cerebral insufficiency].
AB Problem: The effect of *ginkgo* biloba extract EGb 761 on basic   
parameters of mental
performance.  Patients: Seventy-two outpatients    with cerebral
insufficiency at three test
centers.  Study design:    Double-blind, randomized *placebo-controlled*
study of 24 weeks
   duration.  Test parameters: Psychometric computer-aided examination   
of the short-term
memory and basic learning rate.  
Results:    Statistically significant improvement in the short-term memory
   6 weeks and of the learning rate after 24 weeks in the test substance 
group, but not in the
*placebo* group (longitudinal analysis).  The    difference between the
test substance and
*placebo* groups (horizontal    analysis) reached statistical significance
in the 24th week.
   Conclusions: Treatment with *ginkgo* biloba extract EGb 761 improves
   mental/mnestic performance.  Author-abstract.

 AU Rai-G-S.  Shovlin-C.  Wesnes-K-A.
IN Department of Geriatric Medicine, Whittington Hospital, London,   
TI A double-blind, *placebo* controlled study of *Ginkgo* biloba extract
   ('tanakan') in elderly outpatients with mild to moderate memory  
AB Thirty-one patients over the age of 50 years and showing a mild to   
moderate degree of
memory impairment entered a 6-month double-blind,    *placebo* controlled,
parallel group
design study to assess the effects    of a standardized *Ginkgo* biloba
extract (containing 24%
flavonoid    glycosides and 6% terpenes) on cognitive function.  Patients
   allocated at *random* to receive oral doses of 40 mg *Ginkgo* biloba
   extract or identical *placebo* 3-times daily.  Assessments were made at
   baseline and after
12 and 24 weeks of treatment using a range of    psychometric tests. 
Efficacy data were
available for 27 patients (15 in the *placebo* group and 12 in the active
treatment group).
   Statistical analysis of the data as compared to baseline suggests   
that *Ginkgo* biloba
extract had a beneficial effect on cognitive    function in this group of
patients.  Performance on
the Digit Copying    sub-test of the Kendrick battery was significantly
improved at both
   12 and 24 weeks, while the median speed of response on a computerized  
 version of a
classification task also showed a significant    superiority over
*placebo* at 24 weeks. 
IN Landeskrankenhaus Schleswig.
TI [Cerebral insufficiency--treatment with *Ginkgo-biloba* extract.  Time
   of onset of effect in a double-blind study with 60 inpatients].
T  LG German (GE).
AB Sixty inpatients with cerebral insufficiency and the leading symptom
depressive mood, were
treated in a double-blind study for 6 weeks with a daily dose of 160 mg
*Ginkgo* biloba
extract or *placebo.*  After   2, 4 and 6 weeks, changes in 12 typical
symptoms in comparison
with   the last examination, were evaluated.  In the group receiving   
*placebo,* small, but
progressive improvements were observed.  In the    *Ginkgo-biloba* group,
the overall number
of improvements was    significantly larger.  After 2 weeks the
differences were marked for
   only a few of the symptoms; after 4 and 6 weeks in contrast, in 11 of
   the 12 symptoms.  The largest number of improvements in the  
*Ginkgo-biloba* group was
bserved between the 2nd and 4th weeks of    treatment.  In this period,
about two-thirds of the
patients on    *Ginkgo-biloba,* and about one-fifth of the patients on
*placebo* showed
   improvements.  Author-abstract.

U Hofferberth-B.
IN Klinik fur Neurologie der Westfalischen Wilhelms-Universitat
   Munster/Westf. TI [The effect of *Ginkgo* biloba extract on
neurophysiological and
   psychometric measurement results in patients with psychotic organic
   brain syndrome.  A double-blind study against *placebo].* 

AB The range of typical symptoms of cerebro-organic syndrome such as
   dizziness, memory and concentration loss, and orientation disorders   
can either be measured
objectively within a clinical trial or can be    observed subjectively. 
Thirty-six patients with
classical symptoms    of organic syndrome were recruited into a
   double-blind trial in which the therapeutic effect of *Ginkgo* biloba  
extract EGb 761
(rokan) was measured by the following objective criteria: quantified EEG,
saccadic eye
movements and psychometric    tests (Wiener Determination Test, Number
Connection Test). 
Following  2 weeks' wash-out, 40 mg.  EGb 761 was administered 3 times
daily (= 20 mg daily
dose) for 8 weeks.  The control group received *placebo*  capsules of
identical external
appearance.  The tests listed above    were carried out prior to treatment
and after 4 and 8
weeks' therapy    with the exception of quantitative EEG which was
recorded at the
   beginning and end of treatment only.  Patients presenting with  
pathological findings for at east
two of the four test criteria were    admitted to the trial.  Patients
receiving unpermitted
supplementary    medication or suffering from acute cardiovascular
disturbances or
   digestive and metabolic disorders were excluded from the trial.  A  
highly significant
difference could already been seen after 4 weeks    of therapy and also
after 8 weeks in the
results of both the saccadic    test and the psychometric tests compared
to the *placebo*
control    group.  Saccade duration was shortened and the latency reduced.
   parallel, the number of correct answers given in the Wiener   
Determination Test and Number
Connection Test increased significantly    compared to the control group. 
 AU Subhan-Z.  Hindmarch-I.
IN Department of Psychology, University of Leeds, England.
TI The psychopharmacological effects of *Ginkgo* biloba extract in normal
   healthy volunteers. 
AB Eight healthy female volunteers received *Ginkgo* biloba extract
   (G.B.E.) 120, 240, 600 mg and *placebo* according to a randomized,
crossover design.  One hour following treatment,  subjects completed a
battery of psychological
tests including    critical flicker fusion (CFF), choice reaction time
(CRT), subjective
   ratings of drug effects (LARS) and a Sternberg memory scanning test.   
No statistically
significant changes from *placebo* were observed on    CFF, CRT or
subjective ratings of
drug effects.  However, memory as    assessed using the Sternberg
technique was found to be
significantly    improved following treatment with G.B.E.  600 mg when
compared to
   *placebo* and results suggested a localized effect of the drug on the  
 serial comparison
stage of the reaction process.  Author-abstract. 


 Remember, Uncle Walt says, “ We must habit ourselves to the dazzle of the
light “
    W Whitman. Leaves of Grass
      \/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/\/=>>>       Eric R. Ganz
                                    MedCom Associates Inc.

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