* UNANSWERED QUESTIONS: RESPONSE *

Richard Kondo rkondo at ephys.ucla.edu
Mon Jun 10 15:35:21 EST 1996


Margaret Fowler wrote:
> 
> 1. Discourtesy, assumptions of ignorance, and emotive remarks are no
> substitute for measured argument and evidence. Each of these quest-
> ions highlights a contradiction *within* current views; for example,
>     (a) everyone agrees that intracellular movements can be seen by
> low power light microscopy in living cells, yet most people also
> believe that there is a cytoskeleton, which would not permit such
> movements;

	rest deleted

	On the contrary, the cytoskeleton is most likely essential 
for intracellular movement of organelles.  The role of microtubules, 
associated structural proteins and the ATP driven protein motors, 
kinesin and dynein have been elucidated over the past 15 years.

	Brady et al., (1982) Science  'Fast axonal transport in 
extruded axoplasm from giant squid axon'  218:1129-31.

	Hayden et al., (1983) Cell Motility 'Cytoplasmic transport in 
keratocytes: direct visualization of particle translocation along  
microtubules' 3:1-19

	Schnapp et al., (1985) Cell 'Single microtubules from single 
axoplasm support bidirectional movement of organelles' 40:455-62

	Vale et al., (1985) Cell 'Identification of a novel force 
generating protein, kinesin, involved in microtubule-based motility' 
42:39-50

	Sheetz et al., (1987) Annals of New York Academy of Sciences, 
'Movement of vesicles on microtubules' 493:409-16

	Schnapp and Reese (1989) PNAS 'Dynein is the motor for 
retrograde axonal transport of organelles' 85:1548-52.


Richard Kondo
Cardiovascular Research Lab
UCLA



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