Ron Blue rcb1 at LEX.LCCC.EDU
Thu Mar 7 12:32:35 EST 1996

Subject: illusions

On Wed, 6 Mar 1996, Stanley Klein wrote:
> Robinson and McKee have brought up the topic of illusions (a blue tie
> appearing green, a short line appearing long). The area of visual illusions
> is important in my area of research (visual perception). What we try to
> do is to find neural explanations for illusions. We do pretty well. There
> are still debates of course since the exact neural causes and correlates
> of qualia haven't yet been pinned down.
All illusions in my opinion illustrate the underlining process for the
creation of all quala.

For example the opponent process of red/green and  blue/yellow color
reversals.  Correlational opponent process occurs with color constancy,
a short line appearing longer, trees going up in the air after staring
at a water fall, etc.

A simple model of the process is a wave machine.  The clear oil on top
is an opponent wave signal and the colored water on the bottom is the

Naturally the brain is more complicated that the above illustration.

So qualia may be viewed as a steel ball (really a coherence or
organizational associations of stimuli) resting on a piece of woven
frabic.  The weave would have two fundamental structures.  Each
strand in the frabric would be made up of an excitatory neuron and an
inhibitory neuron.  The weave would have at least the following
conbinations: left/right, up/down, vertical +45 degrees pairs, and
vertical _ 45 degree pairs.   Each fabric would have at least nine
strings with the above orientations.  All strings are connected to
a piece of metal that unites all string into a rope or (columar array).
All columar arrays are connected to a spring.  All columar arrays are
viberating at a reference frequency.  No columar array would have
the same reference frequency.

The final piece of fabric is coated with rubber to link unconnected
nerves to others thru a diffusion process.

The steel ball or experience falls onto the fabric.  The interaction
of all the forces is read as the qualia of the experience.

To push the illustration a little more.  The fabric has another fabric
under it modeling the above configuration.  This fabric is the fabric
of memory.  The jointed fabric has a united hole.

IF the modulation of the springs and frabic is perfect the ball or
coherence will fall through the hole and no longer exist.

This will be equivalent to zero.   Zero then means ball.  The zero is
sent to the thylamus.  Sometimes it could be a one.

If the ball is resting on the fabric for a long time and is suddenly 
removed.  A antiball or coherence is formed.  This allows for red to
become green , etc.

You can change the viberation component of the system RELATIVE to the
correlational nature of the system and experience some interesting

For example:

  In Nature 31 August 1995 page 778
researcher G. Bottini, E. Paulesu, R. Sterzl, E. Warburton, R.J.S. Wise, 
G. Vallar, R.S.J. Frackowlak, & C. D. Frith in their article "Modulation
of conscious experience by peripheral sensory stimuli"  revealed that
cold water ran in the ear of brain damaged patient who had lost the
sense of touch regain the sense temporally.  "We show that in normal
subjects touch and vestibular signals share projectionss to the putamen, 
insula, somatosensory area II, premotor cortex and supramarginal gyrus.  In
our patient a subset of theres regions (right putamen and insula) was 
pared by the lesion and was maximally active when touch and vestibular 
stimulations were combined." (Bottini & etc. 1995)

For example:
 Subject: Re: Pain Inducing Patterns 
picture at

On Fri, 3 Nov 1995, Jagan Narayanan wrote:
> Hi Guys:
>I also downloaded the picture and looked at it. There is nothing unique about
> it. If you change the colors from black and white to red and blue you 
>get the same feeling. If you do concentric circles instead of lines you 
>will have the same feeling. What is the big deal here?? > 
> > Shouldn't there be a control group for this experiment?  Perhaps 
I asked 14 students if they felt pleasure while looking at the
pain picture.  No one reported pleasure.  Two reported pain.  I said
each time that you are are suppose to feel pleasure.  

The big deal?  The picture is a stationary image.  Assuming that the
brain processes information in oscillations and that random thermal
noise is gaussian from the central limit principle - a stationary signal
will be oscillated into a gaussian pattern.

The following is a guess.  Using the principles in Random Vibrations,
Spectral & Wavelet Analysis by D.E. Newland (c) 1993, I believe the
following would be true.

1.  the wave patterns of white can be viewed as an ON signal that is
linear correlated to vertical positions.  The bandwidths are correlated,
the black is an OFF signal and is correlated.  The black bandwidths are
correlated.  The correlation is +1.  Auto correlation would be 1.  

2.  The black/white patterns are cross correlated.  The correlation is
one.  The frequency or harmonic of white pattern and black pattern are 
perfectly correlated since they were sampled and seeded with the same
wave frequency used for neuroprocessing.  
Fourier equation and inverse fourier equations
would be equal.  Periodic or circular correlation functions would be
1.  The spectral density would be equal.  Overlapping correlational
functions would be equal. 

Black/white, blue/yellow, red/green are opponent process.  This means
that when a blue stimulus had been habituated the opposite color yellow
will be observed in a grey visual field.

of the neuro system to be activated.  To us this means pain.

Why only one in six or seven?  Why only one in ten with strong pain?

A guess.  I have vision problems.  My perception is frequently distorted.
The correlations for me can not be at their maximum.  Also the
frequency of oscillation generated by randomly looking at the stimulus
should be gaussian.  So only 1/6 would be the values at the maximum range
of a gaussian distribution assuming that the brain is engaging in
wavelet analysis due to opponent process is working on a six standard
deviation formula.

These are pure speculations.  The 1/6 is similar to the reported
hexagons that overlapped in some migraine auras.  This mathematical pattern
I believe is tell us HOW the brain process information.

Assume pain is a stochastic resonance of a zero sum or
flat line resultant over all band widths.  For any observation
data looks chaotic but it is totally deterministic.

Visualize a wave machine made two sheets of flat glass, colored
water, and oil on top of the water.  Also consider multiple wave machines
in front of each other and wave machines perpendicular to each other as
representing a neuro projection area.  

Sorry, back to the simple model.
The total wave length possible is the width of the glass.
The sum of all wave patterns for the oil and water is zero or
a flat line.  At any particular location on the wave machine
(i.e. neuro activity in the pain system) the activity looks chaotic
but can be causally linked to the vibrations on the wave
machine.  Stranglely when you move away from the oscillation
location decreased activity is noticed, and increased in 
activity in noticed in areas that should not be related to
the original location.

If you backup and look at the wave machine
the connect in now obvious.  

You are observing TWO waves.  The top wave is an inversion of the bottom.
The power spectral is zero for the opponent process and the activation
process over the bandwidth!

Ron Blue
rcb1 at

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