In <5d3s09$bv0 at dfw-ixnews4.ix.netcom.com> flefever at ix.netcom.com(F.
Frank LeFever) writes:
>>>>re Neal Prakash's commentary: my reply to the original query (reply is
>header #16908, at least via my server) discussed the IL-1 angle. In
>addition to Linda Watkins re vagus, check out Robert Dantzer re
>exploratory behavior, operant behavior, etc.
>>In my earlier comment, I speculated re IL-1 effect on Ne
>(noradrenaline), the target most prominent in theories of ritalin
>(etc.) action in ADD (although dopamine should not be ignored). I
>indeed find a very good review of IL-1 effects on classsical
>neurotransmitters, including increasing Ne activity--but left it at
>work! will try to bring it home tomorrow. Believe it was in
>Neuroimmunology, 1996 or possibly 1995.
>New York Neuropsychology Group
>(UPDATE Feb. 5) As promised, here is the reference:
Dunn, AJ & Wang, J. Cytokine effects on CNS biogenic amines.
Neuroimmunomodulation, 1995, vol.2, 319-328.
Their discussion focused on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical
axis and the possible relevance of IL-1-induced noradrenaline activity
to activation of the HPA axis, but they also cite a study reporting
increased prefrontal cortical dopamine activity, which would make sense
in terms of the "frontal/intentional" sort of interpretation of ADD I
have alluded to previously.
That study is:
Zalcman S, Green-Johnson JM, Murray L et al. (incl. H. Anisman)
Cytokine-specific central monoamine alterations induced by
interleukin-1, -2, and -6. Brain Research 1994, 643, 40-49.
Thus, there is a plausible rationale for such an effect.
NOW, the remaining question is: how much evidence is there that this
phenomenon (reduced ADD symptoms during fever) exists?
New York Neuropsychology Group
>>>>>>>>>>>In <Pine.GSO.3.95.970202145837.25667A-100000 at taurus.oac.uci.edu> Neal
>Prakash <nprakash at taurus.oac.uci.edu> writes:
>>>>Sorry, I missed the original post.
>>>>But I recall that there is a growing body of research linking
>>behaviors" (i.e. fever, decreased socialization, etc.) with immune
>>cytokines acting directly on the brain. I don't recall the exact
>>right now, try L. Watkins [?] or keywords: IL1, fever, vagus, if you
>>access to medline.
>>>>One belief is that peripheral nerves, but especially the vagus nerve,
>>receptors for cytokines, such as IL1, TNF-b, and IL6. So when you
>>infection, local cytokines activate the vagus nerve, which in turn
>>mediates illness responses in the central nervous system via the
>>>>Perhaps, with ADHD, this response is altered. Or maybe the illness
>>response in the hypothalamus counteracts the neurochemical pathways
>>involved in ADHD...
>>>>>>>>>>On 2 Feb 1997, Wernerson wrote:
>>>>> Why is my child less hyperactive and why does he get better
>>> he have a fever ?
>>> I wonder if science has ever picked up on this point and tried to
>>> trace from there ?
>>> There must be a connection between body temperature and brain
>>Department of Psychobiology, College of Medicine