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Alternative auditory pathways to the brain

Allen L. Barker alb at datafilter.com
Fri Apr 25 12:11:09 EST 2003



Alternative auditory pathways to the brain
------------------------------------------


This page, http://www.zebracards.com/EA-004.html, has some interesting
medical links regarding non-traditional ways of hearing auditory
signals.  On reading it I was inspired to collect together some
disparate information sources to form this current article.  Readers
of these groups and lists are probably familiar by now with the
"hearing" of pulsed microwaves, as well as with the acoustic
heterodyning of two ultrasonic beams for "directed sound."  But there
are some other ways that sounds can be transmitted, in addition to
those methods.

First, there is the use of electric fields (as opposed to
electromagnetic waves).  Humans can detect variations in an electric
field, and some such variations are perceived as sound.  The classic
reference seems to be:

      Sommer, H.C. and von Gierke, H.E. "Hearing Sensations in Electric
      Fields," _Aerospace Medicine_, pp 834-839, Sept. 1964.

Here are a couple of excerpts from online articles.  First, from
"Sensation of Hearing in Electromagnetic Fields," Clyde E. Ingalls, _N
Y State J Med_, 1967 Nov 15;67(22):2992-7.

http://www.angelfire.com/or/mctrl/ingalls.htm

      [...]

      Sommer and Von Gierke have done a great deal of work with
      electric fields, showing that the skin on the head can be
      vibrated by an electric field and that the sound reaches the ear
      by bone conduction.  Likewise, the eardrum can be vibrated
      directly by an electric field.

      [...]

The page below describes some experiments conducted by Colin Keay, a
pioneer in geophysical electrophonics (defined as "the production of
audible noises of various kinds through direct conversion by
transduction of very low frequency electromagnetic energy generated by
a number of geophysical phenomena").

http://users.hunterlink.net.au/~ddcsk/solutio1.htm
http://users.hunterlink.net.au/~ddcsk/solutio2.htm

      [...]

      While I was working in Ottawa, extensive searches of research
      publications for clues about likely transduction mechanisms
      revealed little that was useful apart from interesting papers on
      hearing tests, psychoacoustics, biophysical electrophonics (which
      is the perception of sound from direct electrical stimulation of
      areas near the ears) and reports of radio signals detected by
      tooth fillings. Apart from work on electrostatic loudspeakers,
      only one paper, by Sommer and von Gierke (1964), dealt with the
      direct human perception of electric fields varying at audio
      frequencies. They reported that large fields are required:
      several thousand volts per metre.

      A subsequent visit to the Physics Department of the University of
      Western Ontario was more productive. The Head, Professor Parker
      Alford, expressed great interest in my progress thus far and
      encouraged me to make use of an anechoic chamber in his
      department for tests of the human perception of electric and
      magnetic fields varying at audio frequencies.

      The magnetic field tests were inconclusive. The electric field
      results for the most part verified Sommer and von Giercke's
      findings, except for three of the volunteers who were markedly
      more sensitive than most, the best one able to detect electric
      field variations of only 160 volts peak-to-peak at 4 kHz
      frequency.  The common factor proved to be their hair. Two
      females with the fashionable Afro hair styles and a male with
      very long soft hair showed the lowest threshold of
      sensitivity. Obviously their hair was acting as a transducer.

      As well, there was a serendipitous discovery. Naturally I acted
      as the first test subject, and underwent the same test again as a
      check just prior to dismantling the equipment. My threshold for
      detection had risen 3 to 4 decibels! Luckily the answer was
      found: I was not wearing my glasses. When they were replaced my
      test results reverted to the same as they were initially. Clearly
      the glass frames were responding to the imposition of the varying
      electric field. This finding indicated that mundane objects in
      the immediate vicinity of observers may assist their perception
      of electrophonic sounds from bolides.

      [...]

      These experiments amply explain the capriciousness of
      electrophonic sounds. One or two people in a group may hear the
      sounds while others do not. Or one entire group may report the
      sounds while other people in less favourable surroundings hear
      nothing. The experiments described above which have settled this
      conundrum are not difficult to perform yet I have found no
      evidence of them being performed by any other researchers.

      [...]

What is the mechanism by which VLF and ELF signals can produce such
sounds?  How might engineers apply such knowledge?  Can such signals,
or *combinations* of them, be speech-modulated?  Could effects like
the Taos hum be related?  Are there other environmental signals,
natural or artificial, in the range to cause the effect?

Besides electric and electromagnetic effects, humans can also perceive
ultrasound directly.  This occurs without it being externally
converted to sound in the usual auditory range (as with heterodyned
signals).

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/htbin-post/Entrez/query?db=m&form=6&uid=91289164&Dopt=r

      Human ultrasonic speech perception.  Lenhardt ML, Skellett R,
      Wang P, Clarke AM.  Department of Otolaryngology, Medical College
      of Virginia, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond 23298.

      Bone-conducted ultrasonic hearing has been found capable of
      supporting frequency discrimination and speech detection in
      normal, older hearing-impaired, and profoundly deaf human
      subjects. When speech signals were modulated into the ultrasonic
      range, listening to words resulted in the clear perception of the
      speech stimuli and not a sense of high-frequency vibration. These
      data suggest that ultrasonic bone conduction hearing has
      potential as an alternative communication channel in the
      rehabilitation of hearing disorders.

This is apparently the same effect and mechanism as used by Neurophone
devices, as this description by its inventor Patrick Flanagan makes
clear (note Lenhardt is at MCV rather than UVA)

      [...]

      A team of scientists at the University of Virginia has shown that
      all people are able to "hear" ultrasonic sound waves when these
      sounds are transmitted to the body by direct contact
      vibration. The upper frequency hearing limit for air conducted
      sound has been established at approximately 24,000 cycles per
      second. As we age, the upper frequency limit of hearing
      perception is reduced as a result of aging factors in the
      auditory system.

      Dr. Martin Lenhardt and his colleagues have shown that normal
      hearing people and profoundly deaf people can perceive
      frequencies in the range of 28,000 to 100,000 cycles per second
      when these sounds are transmitted to the body by a direct contact
      vibrator.

      This experiment establishes that there are two separate hearing
      channels into the brain. One channel is for ordinary audio
      frequencies in the range of 20 Hz to 20,000 Hz this channel
      conducts sound into the cochlea or inner ear through the air or
      through bone conduction. Bone conduction works by transmitting
      sound vibrations into the hammer and staple bones that are
      attached to the ear drum. Ordinary bone conduction and air borne
      hearing work by the same mechanism: the cochlea.

      The second hearing channel which was discovered by Dr. Flanagan
      in 1958 is the channel re-discovered by Dr. Lenhardt and his
      colleagues. The second channel conducts ultrasonic sound waves
      through the bones, body fluids or through the skin to a newly
      discovered alternate hearing organ.

      The article by Dr. Lenhardt and colleagues entitled: Human
      Ultrasonic Speech Perception, in the July 5, 1991 issue of
      Science sheds light on the physical mechanism by which the
      Neurophone works.

      Dr. Lenhardt says: "The upper range of human air conduction
      hearing is believed to be no higher than 24,000 Hz; nevertheless,
      there have been reports of humans hearing well into the
      ultrasonic range but only when the ultrasonic stimuli are
      delivered by bone conduction. (Note: Later tests showed that the
      sound is also conducted by skin and bodily fluids.) Furthermore,
      ultrasonic bone conduction hearing in humans has been readily
      demonstrated in various conditions of auditory pathology,
      including sensorineural hearing loss and middle ear disorders."

      Dr. Lenhardt further states that audio perceptual threshold tests
      run on young, elderly and profoundly deaf people show that bone
      conduction ultrasonic perception thresholds are essentially the
      same in all three groups. This leads researchers to conclude that
      there is an alternate hearing mechanism for receiving direct
      contact ultrasonic signals. This study shows that profoundly deaf
      people, can apparently hear sounds in the ultrasonic frequency
      range when the sound is conducted directly into the body by
      vibratory means. Up until this discovery, only dolphins, bats and
      some other animals were known to be capable of hearing in the
      ultrasonic frequency band.

      The authors of this report constructed an amplitude modulated
      ultrasonic transmitter that operated at frequencies ranging from
      28 kHz to 90 kHz (28,000 to 90,000 cycles per second) in
      frequency. The output signal from their device was coupled to the
      heads of human subjects by means of a piezo-electric ceramic
      vibrator, all subjects tested heard the modulated signal with
      clarity. This research is essentially a duplication of
      Dr. Flanagan's original Neurophone device which he constructed at
      the age of 13 in the early months of 1958.

      Lenhardt et al postulate that ultrasonic vibrations are sensed by
      a tiny gland in the inner ear known as the Saccule. This gland is
      approximately the size of a snow pea. The Saccule is used by
      living organisms to sense gravity. It is filled with a fluid and
      has tiny hairs that extend into its interior. When the position
      of the head is moved, the fluid movement stimulates the tiny hair
      cells telling us whether we are tilted of standing up-right.

      Another article entitled: "Projections from the Sacculus to the
      Cochlear Nuclei in the Mongolian Gerbil" from the Brain Behav
      Evol 1989;34; 193-200 postulates that the Cochlea (hearing organ)
      originally evolved from the Saccule and that the Saccule may be
      used as a primitive hearing organ in lower animals. In fishes for
      example, the organ responsive for sound perception appears to be
      the Saccule. The authors go on to state that the Saccule may have
      a dual auditory and gravity detection functions in the auditory
      systems of amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals (now in
      humans).

      Dr. Flanagan's original Neurophone patent number 3,393,279 issued
      on 7/16/1968 consisted of a 30 - 50 kHz amplitude modulated
      ultrasonic oscillator that generated approximately 3,000 volts
      peak to peak across two mylar plastic insulated electrodes that
      were placed in contact with the skin. When an audio signal such
      as music was fed into the device, the music could be heard by a
      person wearing the electrodes on their skin. The Neurophone
      hearing sensation feels like the sound is at the center of the
      head. Tests at Tufts University showed that the skin under the
      electrodes was caused to vibrate by the energy field. When a
      stethoscope was placed on the skin next to the electrodes, the
      audio vibration could easily be heard.

      Tests with profoundly deaf human subjects showed that these
      subjects could "hear" the audio modulation of the Neurophone even
      though they could not hear the same sound by means of ordinary
      bone conduction hearing aids.

      [...]

Finally, the sorts of acoustic pulses believed to be responsible for
microwave hearing can be induced by mechanisms other than microwaves.
(And what about ultrasonic thermoacoustic waves?)  Below is a quote
from a survey article, "Human Auditory Perception of Pulsed
Radiofrequency Energy," J.A. Elder and C. K. Chou, Motorola Florida
Research Laboratories.  Do note the source, though, and phrases like,
"Human perception of pulses of RF radiation is a well-established
phenomenon that is not an adverse effect."

http://216.239.37.100/search?q=cache:rNaOQzXOivcC:grouper.ieee.org/groups/scc28/sc4/Human%2520Perception%2520FINAL.pdf+Sommer+%22Von+Gierke%22+electric+field&hl=en&ie=UTF-8
http://grouper.ieee.org/groups/scc28/sc4/Human%20Perception%20FINAL.pdf

      [...]

      The hypothesis of Foster and Finch (1974) predicts that the RF
      hearing effect is related to thermoelastically induced mechanical
      vibrations in the head. Vibrations of this type can be produced
      by other means, such as by a laser pulse or by a pulsed
      piezoelectric crystal in contact with the skull (Chou et al.,
      1976).

      [...]

Note also that plain old acoustic vibrations can be induced in teeth
and bones and perceived as sound by bone conduction.  A company is
already ready to market cell phones implanted in teeth, which are said
to produce clear sound
(http://www.datafilter.com/mc/audioToothImplant.html).  There is even
a toy lollipop holder connected to a radio which allows children to
hear sounds through the teeth.

I'll end by including some references to some experiments which are
apparently not documented in scientific journals, but which are worth
considering.  This is especially true in light of the above
information.  How might the various scientific effects and devices be
combined with each other, along with the rest of engineering,
psychology, etc.?  The first excerpt is from an article by Dick
Sutphen, describing some neurophone experiments by Flanagan.

http://www.csonline.net/bpaddock/nurofone/mind2.htm

      [...]

      In one of his recent tests, Pat conducted two identical seminars
      for a military audience -- one seminar one night and one the next
      night, because the size of the room was not large enough to
      accommodate all of them at one time.

      When the first group proved to be very cool and unwilling to
      respond, Patrick spent the next day making a special tape to play
      at the second seminar.

      The tape instructed the audience to be extremely warm and
      responsive and for their hands to become "tingly." The tape was
      played through the neurophone, which was connected to a wire he
      placed along the ceiling of the room. There were no speakers, so
      no sound could be heard, yet the message was successfully
      transmitted from that wire directly into the brains of the
      audience. They were warm and receptive, their hands tingled and
      they responded, according to programming, in other ways that I
      cannot mention here.

      [...]

The next experiment is described by Robert Beck in a 1992 _Nexus_
article, and involves brain entrainment experiments.

http://www.projectfreedom.cng1.com/sublim_warfare.html

      [...]

      Any of you people know Dr. Ed Maxey, Stanton Maxey in Florida?
      Okay, about the time I was playing with it he did a very
      interesting experiment. He took a little coil, a few turns of
      wire, put it on the floor underneath the operating table and
      found that by turning this thing on a certain frequencies a large
      percentage of the people tested had brain wave
      entrainment. Entrainment simply means that their brain wave - the
      firing of their neurons - latches onto this magnetic field coming
      from this little coil putting out micro-gauss. You can't even
      measure things this low unless you have highly sophisticated
      equipment. It is invisible. It's tasteless, odourless etc. This
      is in a paper that he presented to a geophysical society meeting
      not too long ago. He too came up with the magic number that I
      have, 7.8 Hertz. He found that exactly four seconds after this
      field went on, the subject's brain waves would lock on exactly,
      on frequency and phase.

      This was Dr. Polk's original paper, and then this "cop-out" about
      1975 when the people that were working in this field had to go
      back, backtrack, and pretend like they had not published their
      original papers, or seen what they had seen. This is what happens
      when you get a government grant, boys and girls!

      Some good work that was being done at UCLA in their brain
      research group. Dr. W. R. Adey was on another government grant
      sponsored by the Office of Naval Research, into the effects of
      these (in this case - pulsed) very high frequency fields, that
      were pulsed with a very low frequency modulation. His published
      papers, and this goes back several years, show that this could
      influence the brain waves of cats and monkeys; and he didn't talk
      about the work that was done out there with human beings because
      by now this was fairly sensitive. They knew it worked. They
      didn't know why. So a lot of time, money and effort went into
      finding out what in the human brain was beginning to respond to
      this.

      A few German physicists were looking into the possibility that
      this may have been the mechanism that we have lived with for
      thousands of years. The name of the paper is "The Biological
      Effect of Extremely Low Frequencies in the Atmosphere". In other
      words, if we live in a natural ELF environment could this
      possibly be the key and mechanism for mass accidents, mass
      suicides, etc.? All of the people who did this work
      independently, Tromp in Holland, Koenig in Germany, found: yes -
      when they went back through the weather records, this had to be
      the mechanism that caused all of these admissions to psychiatric
      hospitals on certain dates, all of these homicides. The data is
      beginning to become massive.

      James R Hamer - "Hammer". He was working with human subjects, and
      he has disappeared, as have a few others. He did some extremely
      interesting work, and this was way back in 1968. At that time he
      was with the Space Biology Laboratory Brain Research Institute,
      University of California. The rest of his papers that I managed
      to gather about ten years ago are now classified. You can't get
      them for love or money. Hamer found that in a 9Hz signal the
      reaction time was definitely shortened. You were more alert. If
      you changed that signal down a few cycles per second, 3Hz to 5Hz,
      look what happens to the reaction time. This applies to human
      beings, monkeys, cats, - apparently all life forms that have
      brain waves.

      [...]

If you think researchers don't just "disappear," consider this quote
from Robert Becker's [note Becker, not Beck here] 1985 book _Body
Electric_.

http://www.sumeria.net/tech/emfwar.html

      [...]

      Unfortunately, my source, having served as a hatchet man for
      defunding research on the environmental dangers of
      electropollution, isn't exactly reliable. Complaints of a mole
      could easily be a blind for a large and intense U.S. EMR weapons
      program. That there's more going on than meets the eye is clear
      from my last communication with Dietrich Beischer. In 1977 the
      Erie Magnetics COmpany of Buffalo, New York, sponsored a small
      private conference, and Beischer and I both planned to
      attend. Just before the meeting, I got a call from him. With no
      preamble or explanation, he blurted out: "I'm at a pay phone. I
      can't talk long. They are watching me. I can't come to the
      meeting or ever communicate with you again. I'm sorry. You've
      been a good friend. Good-bye." Soon afterward I called his office
      at Pensacola and was told, "I'm sorry, there is no one here by
      that name," just as in the movies. A guy who had done important
      research there for decades just disappeared.

      The crucial point to me is that both sides may be embarking on
      hostilities whose consequences for the whole biosphere no one can
      yet foresee. Even if the Soviets have begun an electromagnetic war
      and we're totally unprepared to fight back, I doubt that a simple
      buildup and retaliation are the best course for our own survival.

      [...]

Not only has extensive research been done on such effects and
technology, but every indication (except official government
admissions) is that it both has been and still is being tested on
nonconsensual citizens.  These people are subjected to torture,
another generation of victims just like the radiation experiment
victims.  The United States is a vicious human rights abuser, and
scientists and medical people participate in such abuses both
wittingly and unwittingly.  Listen to the mind control victims!  It
has happened before, and it is still happening.  A society where
people can be covertly harassed and manipulated with impunity is *not*
a free society.  Technology that is kept secret is technology that is
not used to help the patients it can help, and it is ripe for deniable
exploitation against the ordinary citizens.

In this interesting paper
http://216.239.37.100/search?q=cache:D6Zuc3X_LFUC:www.centroenergea.it/Espectral/schumann.pdf+schumann+resonance+zeitgeber&hl=en&ie=UTF-8
http://www.centroenergea.it/Espectral/schumann.pdf
Neil Cherry hypothesizes that humans evolved with the various
electromagnetic resonances such as the Schumann resonance, and now use
them as biological regulators.  That would explain some of the
sensitivity to certain such phenomena, beyond just interference with
bioelectric phenomena via overpowering external signals.  Whatever the
evolutionary reason, humans are quite sensitive to certain frequencies
of electromagnetic radiation.  This knowledge *has* been used to
design weapons.  We're not just talking random electropollution here.
See this _US News_ article by Douglas Pasternak, for example,

http://www.datafilter.com/mc/c_usNewsWonderWeapons.html

      [...]

      By using very low frequency electromagnetic radiation -- the
      waves way below radio frequencies on the electromagnetic spectrum
      -- he [Eldon Byrd] found he could induce the brain to release
      behavior-regulating chemicals. "We could put animals into a
      stupor," he says by hitting them with these frequencies. "We got
      chick brains -- in vitro -- to dump 80 percent of the natural
      opioids in their brains,'"Byrd says. He even ran a small project
      that used magnetic fields to cause certain brain cells in rats to
      release histamine. In humans, this would cause instant flulike
      symptoms and produce nausea. "These fields were extremely
      weak. They were undetectable," says Byrd. "The effects were
      nonlethal and reversible. You could disable a person
      temporarily," Byrd hypothesizes. "It [would have been] like a
      stun gun."

      Byrd never tested any of his hardware in the field, and his
      program, scheduled for four years, apparently was closed down
      after two, he says. "The work was really outstanding," he
      grumbles. "We would have had a weapon in one year." Byrd says he
      was told his work would be unclassified, "unless it works."
      Because it worked, he suspects that the program "went black."
      Other scientists tell similar tales of research on
      electromagnetic radiation turning top secret once successful
      results were achieved. There are clues that such work is
      continuing. In 1995, the annual meeting of four-star U.S. Air
      Force generals -- called CORONA -- reviewed more than 1,000
      potential projects. One was called "Put the Enemy to Sleep/Keep
      the Enemy From Sleeping." It called for exploring "acoustics,"
      "microwaves," and "brain-wave manipulation" to alter sleep
      patterns. It was one of only three projects approved for initial
      investigation.

      [...]

Eldon Byrd recently died of cancer.  Before his death he was involved
with mind control victims, trying to help them measure the signals
they are harassed with.  Having worked with such technologies and
agencies he believed the claims of the victims, or at least that they
were *seriously* worth investigating.



More information available at
      Mind Control: Technology, Techniques, and Politics
      http://www.datafilter.com/mc


-- 
Home page: http://www.datafilter.com/alb
Allen Barker




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