New Support for "A Hypothetical Explanation of Panic Disorder," German Journal of Psychiatry, 2001

James Michael Howard jmhoward at
Fri Dec 12 10:35:57 EST 2003

Peter, thank you for your correct insight.

On Fri, 12 Dec 2003 10:03:32 +1100, "Peter F."
<effective_spamblock at> wrote:

>Yes, amongst else it *ought* to become much more commonly recognized that
>psychological and somatic distress (distressors) has common chemical
>"denominators" (consequences)!
>"James Michael Howard" <jmhoward at> wrote in message
>news:0eqhtv4vklbitqe8rvq3td39fk8ug3i29o at
>> Further Support of An Explanation of Panic Disorder:
>> "A Hypothetical Explanation of Panic Disorder," German Journal of
>> 2001; 4: 40-42.
>> Panic Disorder may result from reduced dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and
>> Analogous to Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
>> Copyright 2003, James Michael Howard, Fayetteville, Arkansas, U.S.A.
>> Panic disorder is characterized by hyperprolactinemia and increased
>> among some other characteristics.  In my 2001, explanation of panic
>> (PD) I used these characteristics to demonstrate that PD may result from
>> DHEA.  I had also produced an explanation of acquired immune deficiency
>> (AIDS) also dependent upon pathogenesis resulting from low DHEA.  I did
>> think to compare similarities in PD and AIDS at the time.  Because I have
>> recently revisited my explanation of AIDS (2003), these similarities have
>> attracted my attention.  These similarities support my explanation of
>> Here are how they supported my explanation of each other.
>> It is my hypothesis from 1985 that vulnerability to the AIDS virus results
>> low DHEA.  (The term "HIV" did not exist at that time.)  DHEA is, indeed,
>> low in AIDS.  The first mention of low DHEA in AIDS appeared in 1989.
>> Furthermore, I soon suggested that I think the symptoms of AIDS actually
>> from loss of DHEA; I suggest "acquired immune deficiency syndrome" should
>> "HIV-induced DHEA deficiency syndrome."  AIDS is characterized by low
>numbers of
>> CD4+ lymphocytes, hyperprolactinemia, and increased cortisol and so is
>> disorder.
>> According to my explanation of panic disorder, hyperprolactinemia results
>> lack of feedback of sufficient levels of DHEA to inhibit prolactin
>> Prolactin is known to stimulate DHEA, so it occurred to me that, perhaps,
>> inhibited prolactin when DHEA reached certain levels.  Now, the background
>> source of DHEA, DHEA sulfate (DHEAS) is quite high in panic disorder.  So,
>> made the hypothesis that DHEA is not being made from DHEAS so prolactin
>> high during panic attacks.
>> DHEA and DHEAS reach very low levels in AIDS so feedback inhibition of
>> should also fail in AIDS.  Hyperprolactinemia is frequently reported in
>AIDS and
>> is sometimes connected with severity of AIDS.  I will not explain this in
>> here, but the ratio of cortisol to DHEA is very important.  (In 1985, I
>> suggested that cortisol evolved to counteract the effects of DHEA.  I
>think this
>> ratio determines the "fight or flight" mechanism.)  Cortisol produces
>> effects, especially when prolonged and in excessive amounts.  Cortisol is
>> in panic disorder and AIDS.  Fasting significantly increases DHEAS and
>> and reduces CD4 cells and "The percentage of CD4 cells was negatively
>> with cortisol concentrations during fasting." (Am J Clin Nutr. 1997
>> Jul;66(1):147-52).  Fasting should increase the probability of panic
>> and this is the case.  Fasting increases cholecystokinin which is known to
>> trigger panic disorders and increase cortisol.
>> AIDS is characterized by low levels of CD4+ cells.  Panic attacks are also
>> characterized with significantly lowered CD4+ cells compared to normals
>> (Neuropsychobiology. 1992;26(1-2):23-6).  I suggest the similarity here is
>> significant.  CD4+ cells are reduced in situations that reduce DHEA,
>> cortisol, and prolactin.  These pathologies, as well as fasting, produce
>> similarities in response.  This response, if prolonged or profound, may be
>> basis of significant morbidity and mortality.  I suggest these are all
>> subordinate disturbances in dehydroepiandrosterone homeostasis.
>> This is also available at

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