New Memory Theory

KP_PC k.p.collins at
Sat Jun 7 00:49:37 EST 2003

"Groan" - all of this stuff has been resolved
in NDT for 2 decades already, and in AoK,
and the refs cited in Aok, all along.

"Groan, groan, groan".


"Groan" :-]

K. P. Collins

"Schmitd! Schmitd! Ve vill build a Shapel!"

"Ian Goddard" <igoddard at> wrote in message
news:1pd2evg751ujqle2nr1cqe8m2u2ki5t20i at
| Rutgers-Newark Scientists: 'Contradictory' Theories About Memory
| Really Be Complementary
| June 05, 2003
| (NEWARK) - For decades, scientists have disagreed about the way the
| brain gathers memories, developing two apparently contradictory
| concepts. But newly published research by a team of scientists at
| Rutgers-Newark's Center for Molecular and Behavioral Neuroscience
| (CMBN) indicates that both models of memory may be partially
correct -
| and that resolving this conflict could lead to new approaches for
| treatment of memory disorders such as Alzheimer's Disease.
| The dispute has centered on how the hippocampus - a structure deep
| inside the brain - processes new information from the senses and
| stores it. Some researchers - such as Mark Gluck and Catherine
| co-directors of the Memory Disorders Project at the CMBN - have
| proponents of "incremental memory," viewing the acquisition of
| as a learning process that occurs over time.
| "If you see thunder and lightning occur together once, that may be
| seen as a coincidence," Myers observed. "But the more often you see
| them happen at the same time, the more likely you are to remember
| as related parts of one event."
| Other researchers, such as Martijn Meeter, also with the CMBN, have
| focused on "episodic memory," which is more like memorization. This
| model argues that "an event only has to occur once and you'll
| it," Myers said. "If someone tells you a name, you may not remember
| for a long time, but you will remember it initially at least." More
| dramatic events tend to be stored in long-term memory most easily.
| But Gluck, Myers and Meeter are developing a computer model that
| suggests the two methods of storing memory work together, and
| their novel ideas in a paper published in the June issue of the
| journal "Trends in Cognitive Science." Research using new classes
| drugs that affect specific portions of a laboratory rat's
| and the region around it with greater accuracy has led the
| Rutgers-Newark team to propose a new interpretation of how the
| organizes all the sensory input that becomes memories.
| That input goes through a kind of assembly line as the brain
| it and directs it to the hippocampus, Myers said. Before reaching
| hippocampus itself, the information all passes through a structure
| adjacent to the hippocampus called the entorhinal cortex for
| processing. The two parts of the brain lie side by side, resembling
| two halves of a hotdog bun. The new paper by the Rutgers-Newark
| investigative team floats the possibility that the entorhinal
cortex -
| part of the "hippocampal region" but not part of the hippocampus
| itself - handles incremental learning. The main task of the
| hippocampus may be storing episodic memory.
| "Understanding how the entorhinal cortex differs in function from
| hippocampus is a hugely important and timely problem in the
| neurobiology of memory," Gluck said. "The entorhinal cortex is
| the very first brain regions that are damaged in the earliest
| of Alzheimer's Disease, so understanding it is crucial to measuring
| the effectiveness of novel drugs to fight AD."
| Until very recently, write the researchers, only broad
| could be made about how memory was processed in the general
| hippocampal region. When humans suffer brain injuries, note the
| Rutgers-Newark scientists in their paper, "the damage is seldom
| limited to a single brain structure." As a result, some memory
| functions long assumed to take place in the hippocampus alone may
| occur in surrounding parts of the brain, such as the entorhinal
| cortex.
| A coordinated effort between different portions of the brain, taken
| a whole, may contribute to what we think of as memory, Myers
| "It's a team, and everyone is doing a specialized job," she said.
| likened much previous research to the poem "The Blind Men and the
| Elephant," wherein each of six men is right about the portion of
| elephant that he is touching but is unable to form a comprehensive
| understanding of the animal as a whole.
| "Everyone has been so caught up in his or her own world that
| has been right on one component, but has not been able to take in
| larger picture," Myers said.
|  OBE Explanation? -->
| "Our greatest illusion is to believe that we are what we think
| ourselves to be." Henri Amiel (1821-1881)

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