A.R. Luria The Working Brain p.58-60

k p Collins kpaulc at [----------]earthlink.net
Wed Feb 11 05:49:46 EST 2004


Hi Peter, Thank You for posting this stuff
to which you've referred in the past.

All of this is 'just' standard Neuroanatomy,
most of which has been known since Cajal's
huge Accomplishments, and it's all included
in explicitly, in the form of a Proof of the
TD E/I-minimization Principle, in AoK, Ap3
[functional ramifications are discussed in the
"Short Paper" section of AoK, and in Ap5,
6 & 7].

But what Luria addresses is not the same as
what's in AoK.

NDT differentiates between two main "systems" -
"the epicritic system" and "the protopathic
system", with specific respect to their relative
mappings with respect to the external experiential
environment.

The "protopathic system" is mapped homologously
to the external experiential environment.

Directions within the "protopathic system" tend,
strongly, to be mapped in the same way that
directions in the external experiential environment
are mapped.

The specific system is mapped in an inside-out,
upside-down, and right-left-reversed way with
respect to the external experiential environment.

It's be-cause of =this= mapping of these two main
systems that 'appropriate' behaviors can be
converged upon, rapidly, via 'blindly'-automated
TD E/I-minimization.

I don't know if you implied, in former msgs, that he
did, but Luria didn't say any of this.

[This directionality-mapping is the most-Significant
stuff that's ever been Reified within Science, because
it constitutes the "Rosetta Stone" with respect to
nervous system function, and, therefore, with respect
to all of Human behavior. [=ALL= - Forgive me, Please.
I understand that this saying lacks proper scientific
Humility, but I'm 'tired' and need to try to 'shake' folks
out of their 'lethargy' with respect to what's in this stuff.]

I'm Grateful for the work that your post entailed,
Peter.

Cheers, ken [k. p. collins]

"Peter F." <effectivespamblock at ozemail.com.au> wrote in message
news:pZjWb.104$rP4.4137 at nnrp1.ozemail.com.au...
> p. 58 Functional Organization and Mental Activity
>
>
>
> connections also exist between the cortex and the lower formations:
>
> it is these connections which transmit the regulatory Influence of the
>
> cortex on the lower structures of the brain stem and which are the
>
> mechanism by means of which the functional patterns of excitation
>
> ilrising in the cortex recruit the systems of the reticular formation of
>
> the 'old' brain and receive from them their charge of energy.
>
> The descending structures of the reticular formation have been
>
> investigated much less fully than its ascending connections. However,
>
> a series of studies (French et al., 1955; Segundo et al., 1955;
>
> Galambos and Morgan, 1960; Magoun, 1963; Narikashvili, 1962;
>
> 1963; 1968; Adrianov, 1963) has shown that through the inter-
>
> mediary of these cortico-reticular tracts stimulation of individual
>
> areas of the cortex can evoke a generalized arousal reaction (Brazier,
>
> 1960; Galambos and Morgan, 1960), facilitate spinal refiexes, modify
>
> the exdtability of muscles through the system of y-afferent fibres,
>
> increase the excitability of the cochlear apparatus (Hemtodez-
>
> Peon et al., 1956; Narikashvili, 1963), and lower the thresholds of
>
> discrinmiatory sensation (Jouvet and Hem4ndez-Pe6n, 1957; Lindsley,
>
> 1951; 1958; 1960).
>
> Both morphological and morphysiological investigations have
>
> thus reliably shown that, besides the specific sensory and motor func-
>
> tions which we have already discussed, the cerebral cortex also per forms
>
> non-specific activating functions, that every specific afferent or
efferent
>
> fibre is accompanied by a fibre of the non-specific activating system,
>
> and that stimulation of individual areas of the cortex can evoke both
>
> activating and inhibitory influences on lower brain structures (Jouvet,
>
> 1961; Buser et at., 1961; Narikashvili, 1963; 1968; Sager, 1968;
>
> Henrindez-Peon, 1966; 1969; Durinyan et al., 1968). It has also been
>
> shown that the descending fibres of the activating (and also of the
>
> inhibitory) reticular system have a well-differentiated cortical
>
> organization. Whereas the most specific bundles of these fibres
>
> (raising or lowering the tone of the sensory or motor systems) arise
>
> from the primary (and, to some extent, the secondary) cortical zones,
>
> the more general activating influences on the reticular formation of
>
> the brain stem arise primarily from the frontal region of the cortex
>
> (French et al., 1955; Segnndo et al., 1955; Nauta, 1964; 1968;
>
> Pribran), 1959b; 1960; 1966a; 1971; Homskaya, 1966b; 1969; 1972;
>
> Sager, 1968) (Figure 10). These descending fibres, running from the
>
>
>
>
>
> p.59 diagrams
>
> p.60
>
> prefrontal (orbital and medial frontal) cortex to nuclei of the thalamus
>
> and brain stems form a system by means of which the higher levels of
>
> the cortex, participating directly in the formation of intentions and
>
> plans, recruit the lower systems of the reticular formation of the
>
> thalamus and brain stem, thereby modulating their work and making
>
> possible the most complex forms of conscious activity.
>
> The medial zones of the cerebral hemispheres belong, so far as
>
> their origin and structure are concerned, mainly to the paleocortex.
>
> archicortex and mtennediate cortgx (Filimonov, 1949) and they
>
> retain their particularly close connection with the reticular forma-
>
> tions of the brain stem. The older writers united ail these structures
>
> under the common name of rhinencephalon (which subsequent
>
> research has not upheld), but later writers, bearing in mind their
>
> very close connection with the structures of the upper parts of the
>
> brain stem and hypothalamus, and with visceral functions, have
>
> preferred to describe them as the *visceral brain'. Neither of these
>
> appellations is entirely accurate, however, since the most notable
>
> function of these structures involves processes of consciousness and
>
> memory.
>
> Early investigations, starting with the observations of Kluver
>
> (Khiver and Bucy, 1938; Kluver, 1952) and ending with the most
>
> recent observations of Olds (1955-9), MacLean (1952; 1958)
>
> and many others have shown that a lesion of these brain zones in
>
> animals causes marked changes in biochemical processes, leads to
>
> changes in the animal's needs, induces a state of rage, and so on.
>
> These facts clearly show that the principal function of these brain
>
> zones is not ccmmuniccUion with the outside world (the reception and
>
> analysis of information) the programming of actions), but regulation
>
> of the general state, modification of the tone and control over the
>
> inclinations and emotions. In this sense the medial zones of the
hemispheres
>
> can be regarded as a system superposed above the structure
>
> of the upper part of the brain stem and reticular formation.
>
> These views have been confirmed by morphological and physio-
>
> logical data. It has been shown, firstly, that the great majority of
>
> neurons in this part of the cortex do not possess any definite modal
>
> specificity, but respond actively to changes in the state of the organ-
>
> ism. Secondly, it has been shown that stimulation of these zones
>
> does not lead to the appearance of differentiated discharges and,
>
> 60 Functional Organization and Mental Activity
>
>





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